Climate Information for Wheat Farming.
Best climatic conditions required for Wheat is moderate humid and required temperature should range from 21 to 26 Celsius, with average rainfall between 50 cm. to 80 cm.
During the heading and flowering stages, excessively high or low temperatures and drought are harmful to wheat. Cloudy weather, with high humidity and low temperatures, is conducive for rust attack. At maturity time crop requires less humidity.
Suitable soil for Wheat Farming.
Wheat can be grown on alluvial soil, arid soil, lateral soil, red soil.
It yields best if it's grown in soil having texture clay loam, heavy soil, with pH 5.0 to 7.0.
Very porous and soil having less water holding capacity is not suitable for wheat cultivation. Under the dry condition, heavy soil with good drainage is suitable for cultivation. Heavy soils with poor structure and poor drainage are not suitable as wheat is sensitive to waterlogging.
Recommended Sowing Times for Wheat Farming.
Rabi: Sowing starts in October and lasts up to December.
Land Preparation for Wheat Farming.
The wheat crop requires a well pulverized but compact seed-bed for good and uniform germination. After harvesting of the previous crop, the field should be ploughed with disc or moldboard plough. Take one deep ploughing followed by two or three harrowing with disc harrow and 2-3 planking should be given to prepare a well-pulverized seedbed. For good germination, apply pre-sowing irrigation 7-10days before sowing. Carried out ploughing in the evening time and kept furrow open whole night to absorb some moisture from dew. Planking should be done after each ploughing early in the morning.
Sowing methods and tips for Wheat Farming.
Sowing should be done manually by seed drilling and broadcasting method.
Seed drill: Drilling method is exclusive to India. In this method, one person ploughs a hole in the land and the other person sows the seed. Ox is the most commonly used ‘person’ to plough the land.
Broadcasting method: Broadcast method generally involves the scattering of the seeds manually over a large area or in the entire field. Labor involved is very less and so is the precision.
Should have row distance between 20 - 23 cm.
Plant/Seed should be sown at a distance of 15 to 18 cm.
Seed depth should be in between 5.0 and 7.0 cm.
Irrigation Methods for Wheat Farming.
The number of irrigations required will vary depending upon soil type, water availability etc. Crown root initiation and heading stages are the most critical to moisture stress. For dwarf high yielding varieties, give pre-sowing irrigation. For heavy soils, four to six irrigations are required whereas for light soils 6-8 irrigations are necessary. Under limited water supply apply irrigation only at a critical stage. First irrigation should be given 20-25 days after sowing. This is the crown root initiation stage and moisture stress at this stage will lead to yield loss. At tillering stage within 40-45 days after sowing, apply second irrigation. Third irrigation within 60-65 day at late jointing stage. At flowering stage (within 80-85 days) give fourth irrigation. Fifth irrigation at the dough stage (within 100-105 days).
Fertilizer Requirement for Wheat Farming.
The Nitrogen was to be applied in two split doses of 60 kg as basal and the remaining 60 kg at first irrigation and full phosphorus and potash to be applied as basal. Recently, the new wheat varieties have responded up to 180 kg N/ha with optima dose around 150 kg/ha. In the Indo-Gangetic plains, application of zinc @ 25kg/ha in the rice-wheat system was found to increase the yield substantially.
Minimum Nitrogen Content (Kg/Ha): 100, Maximum Nitrogen Content (Kg/Ha): 120, Minimum Phosphorus Content (Kg/Ha): 50, Maximum Phosphorus Content (Kg/Ha): 60, Minimum Potassium Content (Kg/Ha): 25, Maximum Potassium Content (Kg/Ha): 30
Seeds Requirements for Wheat Farming.
Seed required for sowing one hectare farmland is in between 100.0 Kg. and 105.0 Kg.
Seed Treatment for Wheat Farming.
To protect seeds from Termite, false smut, loose smut treat seeds with Chlorpyriphos@4ml/kg of seeds or Tebuconazole 2 DS@1.5-1.87gm/kg seed or with Carbendazim or Thiram@2gm/kg of seeds 24 hours before sowing. After chemical treatment treats seed with Trichoderma viride 1.15 % WP@4gm/kg of seeds.
Best Seed varieties for Wheat Farming.
DBW 17, UP 2554, W 502, HD 2687, UP 2382, PBW 343, WH 542, WH 542, UP 2338, UP 2526, UP 2565, U P 2425, PBW 373, RAJ3765, AJ3077, PBW 175, C 306, HS 420, HS 295, UP 1109
Best Practices for Wheat Farming.
Cultural and Preventive: Cultural practices such as time and method of sowing, crop density and geometry, crop varieties, dose, method and time of fertilizer application, time and method of irrigation have pronounced effect on crop-weed interference. Use clean wheat seed that is free from weed seeds. Pull out weeds before seed set. Keep irrigation channels free from weeds.
Use clean wheat seed that is free from weed seeds. Pull out weeds before seed set. Keep irrigation channels free from weeds.
In rain-fed areas, to protect the crop from termite attacked, treat seeds with Chlorpyriphos 20EC@700ml per 100 kg of seed by mixing in 5 liters of water at the time of sowing After then dry seeds in shade.