Black Gram Farming in India: What, Why and How?

Black Gram Farming in India: What, Why and How?

Climate Information for Black gram Farming.
Best climatic conditions required for Black gram is moderate humid and required temperature should range from 25 to 35 Celsius, with average rainfall between 60 cm. to 75 cm.
Black gram cultivation is suitable for moist and hot weather condition. So it gives good yield in Kharif season.

Suitable soil for Black gram Farming.
Black gram can be grown on alluvial soil, arid soil, red soil. It yields best if it's grown in soil having texture sandy loam, clay loam, with pH 6.0 to 7.0.
Soil should be well-drained and have good water holding capacity. Waterlogged, saline and alkaline soil should be avoided.

Black Gram Farming

Recommended Sowing Times for  Black gram Farming.

Kharif: Sowing starts in June and lasts up to July.

Zaid: Sowing starts in March and ends in April.

Land Preparation for Black gram Farming.

The land is prepared like any other Kharif season pulse crop. Good land preparations are necessary for better yield of black gram. Land should be ploughed in summer followed by two to three harrowing at pre-monsoon for Kharif season. However, during summer it requires thorough preparation to give a pulverized free from stubbles and weeds completely.

Black Gram Farming

Sowing methods and tips for  Black gram Farming.

Sowing should be done in line sowing\drilling method with tractor-drawn ferti-cum-seed drill or by bullock drawn ferti-cum-seed drill/titan. Ferti-cum-seed drill should be used for the application of fertilizers and seed sowing at a time.

Drilling method: Drilling method is exclusive to India. In this method, one person ploughs a hole in the land and the other person sows the seed. Ox is the most commonly used ‘person’ to plough the land.

Should have row distance between 25 - 30 cm.

Plant/Seed should be sown at a distance of 10 to 12 cm.

Seed depth should be in between 3.0 and 4.0 cm.

Irrigation Methods for Black gram Farming.

Irrigation is not needed in the rainy season, but in summer season irrigation should be given as per critical stages and availability of irrigation water. Number and frequency of irrigation depend upon the soil type and weather. The crop should get irrigation at an interval of 10-15 days. Irrigation should be provided at a critical growth stage i.e. flowering and pod development stage.

Black Gram Farming

Fertilizer Requirement for Black gram Farming.

20 kg S/ha greatly increases the yield of pulses and also benefit the succeeding crop. Among the micronutrients, Zn is the most deficient nutrient. So the application of Zn @ 25 kg/ha as basal gives very promising results. Boron and Molybdenum give better results in acid soil.

Foliar spray of 2% DAP and 2% KCl at Pre flowering stage enhances the yield. You can apply this fertilizer on a field after 25 to 35 days of seed sowing and the second time after 40 to 50 days.

Minimum Nitrogen Content (Kg/Ha): 15, Maximum Nitrogen Content (Kg/Ha): 20, Minimum Phosphorus Content (Kg/Ha): 30, Maximum Phosphorus Content (Kg/Ha): 40, Minimum Potassium Content (Kg/Ha): 15, Maximum Potassium Content (Kg/Ha): 20

Seeds Requirements for Black gram Farming.

Seed required for sowing one hectare farmland is in between 15.0 Kg. and 25.0 Kg.

Seed Treatment for Black gram Farming.

Black gram seed should be treated with seed treating fungicides to reduce infection by fungal pathogens from the soil. Seed should be treated with thiram @ 2.5 g / kg seed. It should be treated with rhizobium culture for atmospheric N fixation.

Best Seed varieties for Black gram Farming.

BDU-1, TAU-1\t, TPU-4, TAU-2, Pant U-35, Azad-1, Naveen\t, \tPusa-1\t, Krishna, Pant U-30

Black Gram Farming.

Best Practices for  Black gram Farming.

One or two hands weeding should be done up to 40 days of sowing depending upon the weed intensity.

Weeds can be controlled by the use of herbicides i.e. Fluchloralin (Basalin) 1 kg/ha in 800-1000 liters of water as pre-planting application.

Deep summer ploughing once in 3 years.

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