Turmeric Farming In India: What, Why & How?

Turmeric Farming In India: What, Why & How?

Climate information for Turmeric Farming.

Turmeric is a tropical crop that requires temperature in the range of 20 to 35 degrees Celsius. It requires an average rainfall of more than 1500 mm.

Suitable soil required for Turmeric Farming.

Turmeric grows well in sandy loam to clay loam soil having pH in the range of 4.5 to 7.5. Soils with good organic matter are ideal.

Recommended sowing dates for Turmeric Farming.

Kharif - Planting starts in June or July and end in August.

Land preparation for Turmeric Farming.

Turmeric Farming

The field should have fine tilth for turmeric cultivation. Deep ploughing should be done to bring soil to the desired condition. Ridges and furrows should be made in the field with bed size 1 meter wide and 30 cm height with 50 cm spacing between beds. The spacing between furrows and ridges is 45 to 60cm. Lime can also be applied in lateritic soils at the rate of 500-1000 kilogram per hectare.

Sowing methods and tips for Turmeric Farming.

Conventionally turmeric is propagated by rhizomes weighing nearly 35 to 45 grams. Rhizomes are placed in small pits of spacing 25cm × 30cm and then covered with soil.
For commercial cultivation nowadays transplanting is mostly preferred. One month before planting the seed rhizomes are cut into single bud sprouts weighing about 5 gram. These buds are then planted in portrays. After germination, the seedlings can be transplanted in the field after 30 to 35 days.

Turmeric Farming

Irrigation required for Turmeric Farming.

Nearly 15 to 25 irrigations are given in heavy soils. Whereas in light-textured soils 40 irrigations are required for turmeric cultivation. To avoid water wastage, irrigation by sprinkler method or drip irrigation is ideal. Rhizome bulking stage is the critical period for irrigation.

Fertilizer requirement for Turmeric Farming.

Macronutrient.

30 to 40 ton per hectare farmyard manure is applied in the field during land preparation. NPK dose is recommended as 60:50:120 kilogram per hectare. A full dose of phosphorus is supplied as basal. Nitrogen and potassium are given in 3 to 4 split doses at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after planting.

Micronutrient.

In zinc deficient soils 25 kilograms of zinc sulfate per hectare is recommended.

Seed requirement for Turmeric Farming.

Turmeric is propagated by rhizomes. 2500 kilogram per hectare of rhizomes is required for planting turmeric.

Seed treatment For Turmeric Farming.

Rhizomes must also be treated with Trichoderma or Pseudomonas to avoid rot disease. The rhizomes should be treated with mancozeb 0.3% ( 3 gram per liter of water) for 30 minutes. Then rhizomes should be dried in shade for 3 to 4 hours before planting. Rhizomes can also be dipped in quinalphos 0.075% solution for 30 minutes if scale infestation is observed.

Best seed varieties for Turmeric Farming

  • IISR- Pragati- The crop takes 180 days to mature. Plant height is nearly hundred centimeters and it gives nearly three tillers for clump. The yield varies from 38 to 50 tons per hectare. This variety is moderately resistant to root-knot nematodes.
  • IISR- Kedaram- The crop completes its duration is 210 days. The plant is short-statured with a height of 50 cm. It yields up to 30 tons per hectare. It is resistant to leaf blotch disease.
  • Pratibha- the crop duration is nearly 220 days. A number of tillers are nearly 2 per clump. The average yield is 40 tonnes per hectare of rhizomes. The high fiber content in the rhizomes and resistance to root-knot nematodes is a characteristic of this variety.
turmeric farming

Best practices for Turmeric Farming.

  • Mulching- The crops can be mulched after planting. Mulching can be repeated at a 45 days interval after planting. Nearly 15 tons of straw is required to mulch one hectare of area.
  • Weeding- should be practiced at 60, 90 and 120 days after planting.
  • Turmeric can be intercropped with coconut and areca nut plantation. Mixed cropping with chili, onion, brinjal can also be practiced.
  • Spray neem oil 0.5% from July to October to avoid shoot borer attack. To control foliar disease 1% Bordeaux mixture can be sprayed.
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