Climate Information for Safflower Farming.
Safflower acquires cool temperature for its growth. The ideal temperature for its growth ranges from 20-30 degree Celsius. The average rainfall required for Safflower cultivation varies from 600-1000mm.
It cannot tolerate frost conditions. High humidity causes detrimental effects on the crop.
Suitable Soil for Safflower Farming.
Safflower cultivation can be practiced on a wide variety of soil ranging from sandy to clay loam. Best growth is observed on well-drained deep soils. The ideal pH of soil varies from 5 to 7.5.
The crop is susceptible to waterlogging. Safflower cultivation can be practiced in saline soils.
Recommended sowing times for Safflower Farming.
Rabi season- from October to November seeds must be sown in the field.
Land preparation for Safflower Farming.
The seeds of safflower are very small in size, therefore the field should be of fine tilth. To obtain a fine tilth, the land should be ploughed two to three times and followed by harrowing to break large clods. Farmyard manure must be incorporated at the rate of 20-25 tonnes per hectare during land preparation in the field. Drainage channels must be prepared in the field to avoid water logging conditions in the rainy season.
Sowing Method and tips for Safflower farming.
The seeds are line sown with the help of a seed drill at a depth of 3-4 cm and covered with soil. It can be sown as a sole crop in the field or can be intercropped with wheat sorghum in the ratio 6:3 or 3:3. Close spacing is practiced under irrigated conditions and to reduce weed growth.
The spacing varies from 45-50 cm × 20-25 cm.
Seeds are sown at a depth of 3-4 cm.
Irrigation methods for Safflower farming.
Safflower is usually rainfed and drought tolerant but with irrigation, good yields are obtained.
Critical stages for water requirement are flowering and grain filling stages. Irrigation should be given twice, after 30 and 50 days of sowing to obtain a good yield. When less water for irrigation is available, then apply irrigation after 50 days of sowing.
Fertilizer Requirements for Safflower farming.
Farmyard manure at the rate of 20 to 25 tons per hectare is required during land preparation. The recommended dose of NPK is 40: 40: 20 kilogram per hectare. The full amount of NPK should be applied as a basal dose at a distance of 4-5 cm away from seeds.
Minimum 40-kilogram nitrogen and maximum of 90 kilograms per hectare nitrogen should be applied. For Phosphorus minimum of 40 and a maximum of 60-kilogram hectare should be applied in the field.
Seeds Requirements for Safflower Farming.
10 to 15 kilogram of seeds are required to plant 1 hectare of field.
Seed Treatment for safflower Farming.
Seed treatment with fungicides such as thiram or captan @ 2-3 gram per kilogram of seeds should be done.
Seed treatment with biofertilizers such as Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria and Azotobacter at the rate of 200 gram per 10 kilograms of seed is done.
Best Seed Varieties for safflower seed Farming.
- CO- 1- The variety matures within 125 days and gives 80 quintals per hectare of yield. It is tolerant of Alternaria and wilts disease.
- K1 - this variety completes its duration within 120 days. The yield given by this variety is 70 quintal per hectare. It is suitable for cultivation in Southern parts of India.
- NARI-H-15- this variety is tolerant to aphids unsuitable for irrigated areas.
Best Practices for Safflower Farming.
- Apply pre-emergence herbicide such as atrazine at the rate of 0.75-1 kg per hectare to control weed growth.
- Safflower can be cultivated as an intercrop with wheat, sorghum or coriander.
- Crop rotation with legumes like green gram, black gram or cereals such as rice, maize is practiced in safflower cultivation.
- Thinning out of seedlings should be practiced after 15 days of sowing to obtain optimum plant population.
- To control aphids, spray dimethoate 30 EC at the rate of 10 ml per liter of water.
- To avoid gujiya weevil infestation spray Phorate along with Chlorpyriphos.