Climate information for Rose Farming.
Rose grows well in tropical and subtropical climates. The average temperature required for growth of rose plants is 15 to 26 degree Celsius. At higher temperatures, high humidity is required. Rose requires 200 to 300 mm of rainfall.
In India rose is grown in areas having a moderately cool climate. The ideal temperature is 25 to 30 degree Celsius during the day and 15 to 16 degrees Celsius during the night. Plant growth is retarded if it receives less than 12 hours of sunlight. Rose plants are susceptible to frost.
Suitable soil for Rose Farming.
For rose cultivation sandy loam soil with sufficient organic matter is required. The pH of the soil should range from 6 to 7. Well-drained soil is ideal to avoid diseases.
Clayey and heavy soils are not suitable for rose cultivation. Rose can also be grown by an artificial growth medium like coco-peat and perlite. Rose plants are susceptible to the salinity of the soil.
Recommended sowing dates for Rose Farming.
Kharif- Rose cultivation can be practiced from August to March.
Rabi- The best time is September to October.
Spring- planted from February to March in the hilly region.
Land preparation for Rose Farming.
Plough the soil 20-30cm deep with a moldboard or disc plough four to five times and then solarize the soil for at least 15 days. The land should be weed-free for rose cultivation. During land, preparation applies 1.5 tons farmyard manure and to a kilogram of SSP in the soil. Prepare pits of 45cm× 45cm× 45cm size for planting rose. The spacing of pits at a standard rate should be 0.75m.
Sowing methods and tips for Rose Farming.
Rose is mostly propagated by vegetative methods. Rootstocks and miniature roses are propagated by cuttings having two to three buds. These cuttings are then dipped in indole acetic acid or indole butyric acid @ 500 PPM and planted in pits of size 45cm× 45cm× 45cm. Other varieties are commercially propagated by 'T' budding or shield budding in which a bud is inserted in a T-shaped incision made on the stem of rootstock and tied with a plastic sheet.
The plant spacing varies according to the cultivar used. For Hybrid Tea and Floribunda roses, a distance of 75 cm is ideal, whereas for Polyantha and Miniature roses the spacing is reduced to 45 cm. The climber variety of rose requires a distance of 2 meters.
Irrigation system for Rose Farming.
No irrigation is required during the rainy season. Initially, irrigation is applied every 1-2 days till the plants are established. Thereafter irrigation is applied after a 7-day duration. Apply drip irrigation to avoid waterlogging. Also, avoid sprinkler irrigation as it can cause diseases on the leaf of plants.
Fertilizer requirement for Rose Farming.
10 kg farmyard manure is applied per plant. NPK is applied at a ratio of 6:6:12 grams per plant for red roses and 8:8:16 grams per plant for polyantha and hybrid tea roses. In simple terms, a rose plant requires 20 to 30 gram of urea, 30 to 50 gram of SSP and 20 to 30 gram of potash.
A minimum of the 6-gram Nitrogen power plant and a maximum of 9-gram Nitrogen per plant should be applied. Phosphorus should be given a minimum of 6 gram per plant and 8-gram maximum. Potassium should be given at least 8 gram per plant and a maximum of 16 gram per plant.
Foliar application of 0.2% micronutrient mixture produces bright flowers. The mixture contains 20g MnSO4 + 15g MgSO4 + 10g FeSO4 + 5g B . These all contents are mixed and 2 gram of this mixture is dissolved in one liter of water to prepare the micronutrient mixture.
Seeds Requirements for Rose Farming.
Nearly 10,000 rose cuttings are required for 1 hectare of land.
The seed rate should be such that it accommodates 10-15 plants in one meter square area.
Seed Treatment for Rose Farming.
If seeds are taken for rose cultivation then the seeds must be subjected to a period of cold moist storage called 'stratification' in order to have better germination. Once they are germinated treat the seedlings with Trichoderma viride culture to avoid soil-borne disease.
Best varieties for Rose Farming.
- Hybrid tea- Tea roses are the most popular and the flowers bloom with nearly 30-50 petals. The plant height varies from 75 to 200 cm. They are mostly cultivated for home or public gardens. Some varieties of this type are Melody, Darling, Sonia.
- Floribunda- It bears roses in large clusters and blooms continuously. The plant height varies from 50 to 120cm. They are mostly used for landscape designing. Examples of this variety are Florence, Jaguar, Mercedes.
- Polyantha- Plants are shorter and bloom are smaller. This variety includes Swati, Echo, Ideal.
- Climber- This variety requires some support to grow. They are also known as wild roses due to their vine-like growth habitat. The blooms are often produced in clusters and the blooming period is short. Prosperity, Golden showers, Delhi pink pearl, Casino are some varieties of this type.
Best practices for Rose Farming.
- Pruning- Pruning is the removal of those shoots which are diseased and unproductive. Pruning is carried out during the month of October to December. After pruning the cations are protected with Bordeaux mixture or copper oxychloride + Carbaryl 50 WP
- To increase flower production 250 ppm of gibberellic acid is sprayed 30 days after pruning.
- Pinching- it is practiced to promote axillary branching. The terminal bud is removed in new plants.
- In case of hybrid tea roses, the other buds are removed keeping the terminal bud intact to obtain quality bloom.