Climate information for Potato Farming.
Best climatic conditions required for Potato is moderate humid and required temperature should range from 18 to 25 Celsius, with average rainfall between 30 cm. to 50 cm.
The short-day conditions are highly favorable for the economic yield of potato crops. To secure good for potato a day length of 12-13 hours is needed and night temperature 20C increase tuberization. The temperature above 30c completely stops the tuber formation.
Soil required for Potato Farming.
Potato can be grown on alluvial soil. It yields best if it’s grown in soil having texture sandy loam, clay soil, silt loam, with pH 5.2 to 6.7.
The potato can be grown almost on any type of soil except saline and alkaline soils. Soils, which are naturally loose, offer least resistance to the enlargement of the tubers is preferred.
Recommended sowing dates for Potato Farming.
Rabi: Sowing starts from October and lasts up to November
Kharif: Sowing starts from May and end in June
Land preparation for Potato Farming.
The land is ploughed at a depth of 24-25 cm and exposed to the sun. The soil should have a higher pore space and offer the least resistance to tuber development. Well decomposed FYM (25-30 t/ha) is mixed with the soil during the last ploughing. Well pulverized soil facilitates better tuberisation. For healthy tubers, the soil should be free from plant residues or stubble.
Sowing methods and tips for Potato Farming.
Sowing mainly done by propagation method. Potato is a vegetative propagated crop. Hence, the diseases and pathogens are carried from mother tubers used for planting to the next crop. Cut the large-sized tubers in small pieces with the help of a disinfected knife. During cutting keep 2-3 healthy eyes on the cut pieces. The average weight of the cut seed piece should be 30 -40 g as small-sized pieces are more prone to decay. There is commonly 3 types of planting. Flatbed planting-It commonly used in areas having light sandy soils. The tubers are planted in flatbeds in very shallow furrows. The methods require two earthing. First at 30-35 days after sowing and second at 25-30 days after first earthing. Furrow planting-In these methods tubers are planted in furrows (5-7 cm deep) and adopted in irrigated areas having light sandy soils. It needs ridging to 10-15 cm height soon after planting and then at 30-35 days after planting. Planting on ridges. The ridges of 30 cm height are made at 60 cm spacing and tuber are opposite on these ridges. Should have row distance between 60 – 70 cm. Plant/Seed should be sown at a distance of 15 to 20 cm. Seed depth should be in between 5.0 and 6.0 cm.
Irrigation requirement for Potato Farming.
Being a shallow-rooted crop requires light irrigation frequently. In general, light soil should be irrigated at an interval of 8 -10 days whereas heavy soil at 12-15. The critical stages for irrigation are germination, tuber formation followed by earthing and tuber bulking appears at 10-12, 30-35 and 55-60 days after planting respectively.
Fertilizer requirement for Potato Farming.
2/3 quantity of nitrogen and whole quantities of phosphorus and potassium should be applied at the time of planting. Apply the renaming doses of nitrogen at 30-35 days after planting at the time of first earthing up. Apart from major nutrient the crop also needs micro-nutrients which may be applied as soil application or spraying or tuber soaking methods.
Minimum Nitrogen Content (Kg/Ha): 100, Maximum Nitrogen Content (Kg/Ha): 150, Minimum Phosphorus Content (Kg/Ha): 80, Maximum Phosphorus Content (Kg/Ha): 100, Minimum Potassium Content (Kg/Ha): 80, Maximum Potassium Content (Kg/Ha): 100.
Seed required for Potato Farming.
Seed required for sowing one hectare farm land is in between 0.0 Kg. and 0.0 Kg.
Seed Treatment for Potato Farming.
To get uniform sprouting, treat tubers with Gibberellic acid@1 gm/10 ltr water for 1 hour then dry in shade and keep in aerated dim room for 10 days. Dip cut tubers in solution of 0.5% Mancozeb solution (5 gm/ltr of water) for ten minutes. It will prevent rotting of tuber in early plantation stage. To protect crop from rotting and black scurf disease treat whole and cut tubers with 6% Mercury solution (Tafasan)@0.25% (2.5 gm/ltr of water).
Best varieties for Potato Farming.
Satha, Gola, Kufri khasigaro, Kufri Chandramukhi, Kufri Alankar, Kufri bahar, Kufri ashoka, Kufri moti, Kufri Jyoti, Kufri anand, Kufri Frysona, Kufri Navjot, kufri Neela, Kufri Dewa, kufri Jeevan, kufri kumar, Kufri kumar, Kufri Girdhari, Kufri Naveen, Kufri neelmani.
Best cultivation practices for Potato Farming.
Two manual weeding, first at 15-20 days after planting and second weeding -cum-hoeing at 30-35 days after planting are sufficient to control the weed. The first weeding may be replaced by use of herbicides but second weeding and hoeing at earthing is a must.
Earthing up: It is necessary to maintain proper aeration, proper soil temperature and moisture in soil for good growth of crop and proper development of tubers. In earthing up soil is drawn up around base of plant to encourage better tuber formation. It should be done when plant attained height of 15-20 cm. If required carry out second earthing up two weeks after first earthing up. It can be done manually with hoe or mould board plough or ridger for large areas.
The number of earthing and height of ridges depends on the method of planting. Generally, two earthing are sufficient in flat bed planting.
Mulching is also an effective way to minimized weed infestation along with it helps to conserve soil moisture. Paddy straw or farm remains can be used for mulching. Remove mulch 20-25days after planting.