Climate information for Passion Fruit Farming.
Passion fruit grows well in tropical to subtropical climate conditions. The ideal temperature for growth is 20 degree to 30 degree Celsius. It requires rainfall of 1000mm to 2500mm.
In India, it is mostly grown in areas having tropical climates and in North-Eastern states. It is susceptible to low temperatures and frost. At high temperatures, the plant grows well but the fruit setting is little.
Soil requirement for Passion fruit Farming.
It can be grown on various types having medium texture. Passion fruit grows well in sandy soils with high organic matter having pH in the range of 6 to 7.5. The soil must have well-drained conditions.
Yellow passion fruit can grow in alkaline soils as well. The plants are susceptible to soil salinity.
Recommended sowing dates for Passion fruit Farming.
Sowing of seeds is done in March to April.
Planting is done in the month of June-July with the onset of monsoon.
Land preparation for Passion Fruit Farming.
For orchard preparation of passion fruit, the land is lightly ploughed initially up to a depth of 15-20 cm and then harrowed two to three times to obtain a fine tilth. Pits are dug in the field dimensions 45cm× 45cm× 45cm at a spacing of 2-4m × 2-4 m depending upon the type of planting method chosen and density of planting.
Sowing methods and tips for Passion Fruit Farming.
Passion fruit is cultivated by vegetative propagation through cuttings, grafting and also by seeds. Mostly the cultivation is done by seeds. The pulp is fermented for 3 days to extract the seeds from the pulp. The seeds are sown on nursery beds which germinate within 13 to 15 days. Seedlings should be transplanted after three months in the main field.
In the case of cuttings, about 30 cm size cuttings with at least 3 notes are taken and placed in pots. Rooting hormone is applied on cuttings and after the development of roots, they are transplanted in the main field after 3 months.
The spacing should be 3m × 3m for Bower system of training and 2m× 3m for Kniffin system of training.
Irrigation Methods for Passion fruit Farming.
During the monsoon, irrigation should not be given. Proper drainage should be carried out in the rainy season. Light irrigation should be applied in summer and hot weather conditions. Irrigation can be applied by the overhead system or through drip irrigation @ 8-10 liters of water per vine per day in the summer season.
Fertilizer requirement for Passion fruit Farming.
Nearly 10 to 15 kilogram of farmyard manure should be applied per vine.
The recommended dose of NPK is 150:100:200 kilogram per hectare. Half amount of potassium and the full amount of phosphorus is given as basal dose whereas nitrogen is applied in 3 split doses. Foliar application of micronutrients such as magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc, boron can be done.
Minimum 80kilogram Nitrogen and maximum of 200-kilogram Nitrogen per hectare should be applied. Minimum 40 kilogram and maximum 100 kilograms per hectare Phosphorus should be applied and a Minimum of 50 kilogram and maximum 200kilogram Potassium must be applied per hectare.
Seeds requirement for Passion fruit Farming.
In the case of seedlings, 1100 to 1600 seedlings are required per hectare of land depending upon the training system followed.
Seed treatment for Passion fruit Farming.
The seedlings should be spared with 1% Bordeaux mixture to prevent root rot disease. The cuttings are treated with 200 ppm of naphthalene acetic acid for 5 to 6 seconds.
Best seed varieties for Passion fruit Farming.
- Kaveri- it is a hybrid variety of purple and yellow passion fruit. The vines produce purple fruit which is bigger in size than other varieties and weigh nearly 100-110 grams. The fruits are aromatic. Variety is tolerant of various diseases and pests.
- Giant granadilla- this variety produces greenish-yellow fruits which are about 20 cm long and weigh nearly 500 to 600 gram. The fruits have an oblong shape with large seeds and thick pulp.
Best cultivation practices for Passion fruit Farming.
- Intercropping can be done with turmeric, ginger.
- Mulching can be done in the field to conserve moisture and maintain a weed-free field.
- Softwood grafting is practiced widely, as in this method soil borne disease tolerant rootstock is taken and desired variety fruits shoot is grafted to get required yield.
- Pruning of the plants should be done after harvesting the fruits.
- Bower system of training of vines is practiced to support the wines so that they can bear fruits.