Climate Information for Papaya Farming.
The papaya being tropical crop favors high temperature(25-35C) and high humidity(60%-75%). It is very susceptible to frost and hail storms. The long days are favorable for good quality and flavor. During flowering, high rains are injurious and cause heavy damage.
Suitable soil for Papaya Farming.
It is grown in a wide range of soils. Hilly soil having well drainage system is suited best for papaya farming. Avoid cultivation in sandy or heavy soil. The pH soil ranging from 6.5-7.0 is best for papaya farming.
Recommended Sowing Times for Papaya Farming.
Seeds are sown in the second week of July to the third week of September and transplanting is done from the first week of September to mid-October.
Land Preparation for Papaya Farming.
The land meant for papaya cultivation must be well-protected from strong winds and must not get waterlogged easily during rains. In case of strong winds, there must be windbreaks around the land. The seeds are first sown in nurseries and the seedlings are transplanted to the main field after about 6-8 weeks of growth.
Sowing methods and tips for Papaya Farming.
The propagation of papaya plants takes place mainly by means of sexual methods only (through seeds). The seeds are obtained from the large sized, healthy and ripe fruits free from pests and diseases. The seeds are then sown in raised soil beds of the nursery. When the seedlings reach a height of 10-15 cm, they are transplanted into the main field. In some cases, the seeds fail to germinate because the viability of the seeds is completely lost just in a span of about 45 days. The removal of the mucilaginous covering (sarcotesta) from the seeds is helpful in rapid and uniform germination. The seeds should be dipped in a bucket of water for two to three days and after that they should be mixed with wood ash and rubbed with a rough piece of cloth. The seeds should then again be washed and the mucilaginous layer will then break off very easily. This operation can also act as a test for the viability of the seeds. The viable and healthy seeds sink in water while the non viable ones float and thus can be easily skimmed off. The seeds are capable of being sown immediately or can be sown after drying in shade in airtight containers. The drying operation in the sun should be avoided at all costs since it will result in complete loss of viability of the seeds.
A normal spacing of 1.8 m X 1.8 m is followed for commercial papaya fields. However, for gaining more returns, high density planting is followed and a spacing of 1.5 m X 1.5 m or 1.2 m X 1.2 m should be followed.
Irrigation Methods for Papaya Farming.
For better growth, production and quality, the optimum soil moisture is maintained by irrigating the crop judiciously. Irrigation interval well depends on the season, crop growth and soil type. In no case, water should be allowed to stagnate causing root and stem rot. Drip system of irrigation is beneficial and the actual quantity of water to be given per plant per day should be worked out critically.
Fertilizer Requirement for Papaya Farming.
The papaya is a heavy feeder and requires the application of chemical, organic and bio-fertilizers. The dose of NPK @ 500 kg each per ha, along with 20-25 tonnes of FYM 50 to 100 kg of ormichemi micronutrients and ultrazyme sea weed extract granules. 25 kg is found for a crop of about 50 tonnes within 18-20 months. Additional 60% of this dose is again applied for the second flush.
Seeds Requirements for Papaya Farming.
In some rare cases, papayas are commercially propagated by tissue culture plants. The seed rate ranges from 250-300 grams per hectare of land.
Best Varieties for Papaya Farming.
Honey Dew, Coorg Honey Dew, Washington, Solo, Co-1,Co-2, Co-3, Sunrise Solo, Taiwan, Pusa Delicious, Pusa Nanha, Ranchi selection, Washington, Coorg green.
Best Practices for Papaya Farming.
Weed can be controlled by hand-hoeing and also controlled by chemically, use firstname.lastname@example.org per 150 liters of water. Use glyphosate only on weeds, not on crop plants.
Intercultural is mainly done to remove the weeds during the early period of growth, weeding and hoeing in between rows also favor better aeration to root zone. Some times pre-emerging weed killer like Basalis is used. Secondly, roughing is done to remove extra plants, weak plants and affected plants. After ensuring one plant per pit, earthing up is done 30 cm in a radius around the plants.