Climate Information for Paddy Farming.
Best climatic conditions required for Paddy is highly humid and required temperature should range from 18 to 35 Celsius, with average rainfall between 100 cm. to 200 cm.
Paddy cultivation can also be done in temperate and sub-tropical climate under humid conditions. A high temperature, humidity and sufficient rainfall with irrigation facilities are the primary requirements of paddy cultivation. It also needs bright sunshine.
Suitable soil for Paddy Farming.
Paddy can be grown on alluvial soil, black soil, red soil.
It yields best if it's grown in soil having texture sandy loam, with pH 5.0 to 8.5.
Free of waterlogging and sodality are considered best for paddy cultivation.
Recommended Sowing Times for Paddy Farming.
Rabi: Sowing starts in November and lasts up to February.
Kharif: Sowing starts in June and ends in July.
Land Preparation for Paddy Farming.
Rice is cultivated in different methods depending on the water availability and weather. In areas where the rainfall is abundant clubbed with abundant water supply, the wet system of cultivation is followed. On the other hand, in areas where irrigation facilities are unavailable and water is scarce, dry cultivation system is followed.
Wet Cultivation System.
The land is thoroughly ploughed and flooded with water up to 5cm in depth. In the case of clayey or loamy soil, the depth must be 10 cm. Post puddling the land is levelled so as to ensure uniform water distribution. Seedlings are sown or transplanted after levelling.
Dry Cultivation System.
In this rice cultivation process, the soil must have a good tilth hence it must be ploughed thoroughly. In addition, farmyard manure must be distributed on the field uniformly at least 4 weeks before sowing. The seeds are then sown with 30 cm spacing between the plants.
Sowing methods and tips for Paddy Farming.
Sowing can be done by a given method. Nursery management-Nursery beds are made occupying about 1/20th of the total field area. The paddy seeds are sown in the bed. They are ready within 25 days of sowing in low land areas while in higher altitudes they take about 55 days to become ready for transplantation. There are four different practices of cultivation of rice, viz. transplantation method, drilling method, broadcast method and Japanese method.
Transplantation is the most commonly used method wherein seeds are first sown in nursery and the seedlings are transplanted to the main field once they show 3-4 leaves. Although this is the best yielding method, it requires heavy labor.
Drilling method is exclusive to India. In this method, one person ploughs a hole in the land and the other person sows the seed. Ox is the most commonly used ‘person’ to plough the land.
The broadcast method generally involves the scattering of the seeds manually over a large area or in the entire field. Labor involved is very less and so is the precision. This method produces very less yield as compared to others.
Japanese method has been adopted for the high yielding variety of rice and those that need a high amount of fertilizers. Seeds are sown in nursery beds and then transplanted to the main field. It has shown tremendous success for the high yielding varieties.
Should have row distance between 20 - 22 cm.
Plant/Seed should be sown at a distance of 10 to 12 cm.
Seed depth should be in between 2.0 and 3.0 cm.
Irrigation Methods for Paddy Farming.
Keep field flooded up to two weeks after transplanting. When all water gets infiltrated two days after apply irrigation in the field. Depth of standing water should not exceed 8cm. While doing the intercultural and weeding operation, drain out excess water from the field and irrigate field after completion of this operations. Stop irrigation about a fortnight before maturity to facilitate easy harvesting. For uplands, irrigation completely depends on rainfall. Depending upon rainfall intensity and frequency and depending upon water availability, provide water at critical stages. Water stress at reproductive and pollination drastically reduce yield.
Fertilizer Requirement for Paddy Farming.
Apply a half dose of Nitrogen and the full amount of Phosphorus and Potash at transplanting time. Apply the remaining amount of Nitrogen in two equal splits i.e. 1/4th of N applied at time tillering stage and 1/4th at the time of Panicle initiation stage.
Minimum Nitrogen Content (Kg/Ha): 100, Maximum Nitrogen Content (Kg/Ha): 120, Minimum Phosphorus Content (Kg/Ha): 60, Maximum Phosphorus Content (Kg/Ha): 80, Minimum Potassium Content (Kg/Ha): 55, Maximum Potassium Content (Kg/Ha): 60
Seeds Requirements for Paddy Farming.
Seed required for sowing one hectare farmland is in between 12.0 Kg. and 16.0 Kg.
Seed Treatment for Paddy Farming.
Before sowing the seeds must be soaked in the salt solution for 10 minutes. The ones that float must be discarded while the ones that sink are mature seeds that must be used for planting. Immediately wash the seeds after removing from the solution. Farmers are advised to soak the seeds in a good fungicide solution like carbendazim for 24 hours. This ensures the seed protection from fungal diseases.
Best Seed varieties for Paddy Farming.
Pusa 834 (IET-11674), Pant Dhan-12 (IET-10955), Ratnagiri-3 (IET-11384), \t Karjat-2 (IET-12331), \t Karjat-3 (IET-12481), Jaya, Chakia 59, Mahsud, Saket 4, Taraori Basmati, Hybrid 6201, \t Birsa Dhan-106, Birsa Dhan-107, \t Gautam, \t Shakuntala, \t ASD-19 (IET-10436), TPS-3 (IET-10522), Poornima (IET-12284), Malviya Dhan-36.
Best Practices for Paddy Farming.
The area of cultivation is prevalent in bacterial diseases like leaf blight, then the seeds must be soaked in Streptocycline solution for 12 hours for seed treatment After this, they must be dried thoroughly under the shade and then used for sowing. Normally seeds are sprouted before sowing or then grown in nurseries before transplanting
Separate field channels can be constructed to allow water to be delivered to individual seedbeds. Thus the main field is not watered till it is time to actually plant in the main field. It is important to control the water flowing to the field or draining away from the field. This is necessary so that the nutrients applied are not lost.
When there are deep cracks present in the soil a huge amount of water can be lost due to drainage of water through these cracks that run below the root zone. In such cases, the cracks must be filled before soaking. One of the ways is to do shallow tillage before soaking the land. In the case of clayey soils, the land is puddled since it results in a hard pan. However, for heavily clayey soils puddling is not necessary.
A field that is uneven in level consumes nearly 10% extra water than what is necessary for growth. The field is generally ploughed twice before levelling. The second ploughing is done with water in the field so as to define the high and low areas.
Bunds form a boundary and hence limit water loss. They must be compact and high enough to avoid overflowing of water in case of rains. Rat holes and cracks must be plastered.