Mustard Farming in India: What, How & Why?

Mustard Farming in India: What, How & Why?

Climate Information for Mustard Farming.

Best climatic conditions required for Mustard is low humidity and required temperature should range from 22 to 25 Celsius, with average rainfall between 60 cm. to 80 cm.

At ripening stage and germination high temperature is required. Cold temperature, bright sunshine and enough soil moisture increase the oil content of the seed. During flowering rain, cloudy weather, frost and high humidity are harm full. In this weather there more attack by insects and pod formation is less.

Soil Information for Mustard Farming.

Mustard Farming

Mustard can be grown on alluvial soil, red soil.

It yields best if it's grown in soil having texture sandy soil, clay loam, heavy soil with pH 6.0 to 7.5.  The mustard crop is sensitive to waterlogging therefore, the soil should be well-drained. Acidic soils are suited for mustard cultivation but slightly Alkaline and neutral soils are considered good.

Recommended Sowing Times for Mustard Farming.

Rabi: Sowing starts in September and lasts up to October

Land Preparation for Mustard Farming.

Mustard Farming

For good germination of the crop, it required a fine seedbed. Do ploughing of soil for two to three times followed by two harrowing's. After the harvest of Kharif, cropland is ploughed deeply with moldboard plough once which followed by 2 to 3 ploughing by harrow cultivator or desi plough. After ploughing with the help of plank (pata) mud clods should be broken as small as possible.

Sowing methods for Mustard Farming.

Sowing should be done by drilling method.

Drilling methods: Drilling method is exclusive to India. In this method, one person ploughs a hole in the land and the other person sows the seed. Ox is the most commonly used ‘person’ to plough the land.

Should have row distance between 30 - 40 cm.

Plant/Seed should be sown at a distance of 10 to 15 cm.

Seed depth should be in between 4.0 and 5.0 cm.

Irrigation Methods for Mustard Farming.

Mustard requires about 31-40 cms of water. The first irrigation should be given at the flowering stage which is about 30 days after sowing. The second irrigation should be given at the pod formation stage which is about 60-65 days after sowing. When only one irrigation is available then it should be given 30 to 35days after sowing.

Fertilizer Requirement for Mustard Farming.

While preparing the field, apply 70 to 120 qtl farmyard manure or well-decomposed cow dung in soil. Apply Nitrogen just before pre-sowing irrigation. Apply half of the fertilizer just before sowing and remaining half with first irrigation. For rainfed condition, give all fertilizer just before sowing.

Minimum Nitrogen Content (Kg/Ha): 35, Maximum Nitrogen Content (Kg/Ha): 45, Minimum Phosphorus Content (Kg/Ha): 25, Maximum Phosphorus Content (Kg/Ha): 35, Minimum Potassium Content (Kg/Ha): 20, Maximum Potassium Content (Kg/Ha): 25

Seeds Requirements for Mustard Farming.

Seed required for sowing one hectare farmland is in between 4.0 Kg. and 5.0 Kg.

Mustard Farming

Seed Treatment For Mustard Farming.

To protect seed from soil-borne pest and disease, before sowing does seed treatment with Thiram@3gm per kg of seeds.

Best Seed Varieties For Mustard Farming.

T-151, K-88, 66-197-3, P.S-66, Vinay (B-9), Rai Varuna (T-56), Rohani, \tKranti, Krishna, \tVardan, Vaibhav, Narendra Rai - 8501, Kiran

Best Practices For Mustard Farming.

The Field should be free from weeds to procure a high yield. Weeds if present in the field not only consume fertilizer and water but also light, air and space and so the production of the mustard crop reduces drastically.

Weeds growing with the mustard crop should be removed on time. First weeding should be done 30-35 days after sowing.

Hoeing and intercultural operations should be done a few days after irrigation since weeds would have sprouted. Thus the weeds are removed and the crust is broken.

During the first intercultural operation extra week plants should be removed from the field and 10 to 15cm. Distance between plants should be maintained.

Under rainfed conditions, one hand weeding 25 days, irrigated conditions, 2 hand weedings 25 and 40 days are needed.

Pre-plant incorporation of fluchloralin @ 1.00 kg/ha or pre-emergence application of pendimethalin @ 1.00 kg/ha are quite effective in controlling weeds.

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