Climate information for Mushroom Farming.
Mushrooms can be grown in temperatures ranging from 32 to 38 degree Celsius. High humidity up to 90% is required for mushroom cultivation.
In India, mushroom cultivation is mostly practiced in colder climatic regions. Mushrooms cannot thrive in temperatures higher than 40 degree Celsius and lower than 30 degree Celsius.
Material required for Mushroom Farming.
Mushroom cultivation is practiced on compost or paddy straw. Compost is prepared initially in the field. To produce 1kg of mushroom, twice the amount of substrate or compost is required.
Recommended sowing dates for Mushroom Farming.
Kharif- June to September for Oyster Mushroom cultivation.
Rabi- November to February for Button Mushroom cultivation.
Land preparation for Mushroom Farming.
For mushroom cultivation, the land is required for construction of house and shade structures. On an average one hectare of the area is sufficient for mushroom cultivation.
For compost preparation, first, chop the straw into small pieces of size 10-20 cm length. Afterwards spread the straw in a thin layer in the field and water it thoroughly. Mix fertilizers such as ammonium sulphate and urea at the rate 3 kilograms along with gypsum @ 20 kilograms. The compost can be prepared by piling up in a heap. Heaps must be turned after every 4 days to allow fermentation of other layers for proper compost preparation. Along with turning of heap spray fungicides such as malathion @ 2ml per liter of water.
Sowing methods and tips for Mushroom Farming.
Mushrooms are vegetatively propagated with the help of spawns. The spawns are grains containing mycelium growth. The process of sowing of mushroom spawns is known as spawning. Each bag is filled with 10kg of compost. The spawns are placed in polythene bags of 100-150 gauge thickness or trays at a distance of 15-20cm and 3-4cm deep. The compost is placed over the spawns in a thin layer. This process is repeated three to four times. Water is sprinkled over the compost after spawning. In case of spawning in polythene bags, tie the mouth of the bag and make holes in the polythene for aeration. These bags are then tied at a height and placed in a dark room having high humidity. Within 15 days the mycelium gets filled in the polythene bag from which mushrooms or fruiting bodies appear within 30-45 days.
Irrigation requirement for Mushroom Farming.
Regular watering at the rate 10litre to the compost is also required after every 2-3 days, during the compost preparation stage. After spawning, water is sprinkled at regular intervals on trays or polythene bags to maintain humidity for better growth of mushrooms.
Fertilizer requirement for Mushroom Farming.
Gypsum at the rate 10-15 kilogram is mixed in 100kg of compost. Urea at the rate of 2 Kg per 100 kg compost, Single Super Phosphate @ 1.5 Kg per 100 kg of compost, Calcium Ammonium Nitrate @ 3-5 Kg per 100 kg compost and Muriate of Potash at the rate of 1-2 kg should be applied.
Seeds Requirement for Mushroom Farming.
600-750g of spawns are required for 100kg compost.
Planting material treatment for Mushroom Farming.
The compost is treated with formaldehyde 2% solution and Bavistin at the rate 75 ppm for 6-8 hours before spawning.
Best seed varieties for Mushroom Farming.
The most commonly cultivated varieties of mushrooms in India are -
- Oyster mushroom- These are also known as dhingri mushrooms. They produce fan-shaped fruiting bodies which resemble Oyster.
- Button mushroom- These are the most commonly cultivated weighted mushrooms. They have button-shaped heads of cream-white in color.
- Shiitake mushroom - These mushrooms produce an umbrella-shaped fruiting body with black gills. It is used mostly for medicinal purposes.
Best cultivation practices.
- To control mushroom flies spray Endosulfan 35 EC at the rate of 20 ml in 10-15 liters of water.
- Dusting with 70% calcium hypochlorite is effective against cobweb disease.
- To control mites spray Dithane M- 45 at 10 days interval.
- Fumigation of shade houses must be done regularly to prevent disease.
- The mushroom collection should be done before their opening.
- Maintain high humidity where mushrooms are being cultivated to obtain high yields.