Climate Information for Mango Farming.
Mango is well adapted to tropical and sub-tropical climates. It cannot stand severe frost, especially when the tree is young. High temperature by itself is not so injurious to mango, but in combination with low humidity and high winds, it affects the tree adversely. Mango varieties usually thrive well in places with rainfall in the range of 75-375 cm. /annum and dry season. The distribution of rainfall is more important than its amount. Dry weather before blossoming is conducive to profuse flowering. Rain during flowering is detrimental to the crop as it interferes with pollination. However, rain during fruit development is good but heavy rains cause damage to ripening fruits. Strong winds and cyclones during the fruiting season can play havoc as they cause excessive fruit drop.
Suitable soil for Mango Farming.
Mango can grow on a wide range of soils. However, deep and well-drained loam to sandy loam soils is most suitable for cultivation. Heavy black cotton, saline and alkaline soils should be avoided. The deal range of soil pH for mango cultivation is 5.5 to 7.5.
Recommended Sowing Times for Mango Farming.
Planting is done in the month of August-September also in February - March. Do planting in cool hours of the evening. Protect crop from high wind.
Land Preparation for Mango Farming.
The fields are ploughed to remove the crop debris, weeds and rocks. The heavy clouds are broken down to loose soil. This step is important to provide good tilth for the healthy development of the younger roots. The land is then levelled with adequate sloping. The slopes are necessary to facilitate the drainage of excess water and in irrigation. In the case of soils that do not let water drain off quickly, trenches are made to prevent water from being stagnated.
Sowing methods and tips for Mango Farming.
The propagation of mango plants takes place both by means of vegetative methods or through seeds. The seeds are obtained from the ripe fruits and are sown in raised soil beds of the nursery. When the seedlings reach a height of 10-15 cm, they are transplanted into the main field. But this method is not preferred since propagation by sexual means results in variation in the young plants and the fruits of those plants differ from the fruits of their mother plants in taste, vigor, color and other phenotypic characters. As a result, propagation by vegetative means is widely practiced for producing clones of the superior mother plants..
The vegetative propagation methods include cutting, grafting and layering.
1. Cutting involves a shoot taken from the superior mother plant and then planted in the field where the shoot will eventually sprout a root system and regenerate itself into a full-fledged tree with trunk and bark.
2. Grafting involves the production of a new mango tree from the rootstock of a strong plant with the scion added from a plant with superior taste and vigor but weak structure. After successful grafting in the nursery, the young plants are then transplanted into the fields.
3. In the layering process, a branch of the old plant is bent into a trench and then covered by soil. After a few days, new roots sprout from the buried part of the plant and then they are disconnected from the mother plant. Also, in the air layering process, scratches are made in a branch of the tree which is then treated with appropriate hormones and then covered by sphagnum moss and other materials for retaining moisture. A few days after, roots and shoots sprout from that part which is then detached and planted in the field.
The planting distance between two consecutive plants is 10 m X 10 m in dry zones and 12 m X 12 m in moist and humid zones. However, a generalized spacing of 8 m X 8 m is enough for commercial cultivation of mangoes in agricultural fields.
Irrigation Methods for Mango Farming.
Amount and interval of irrigation depend upon, type of soil, climate and source of irrigation. To young plant apply light and frequent irrigation. Light irrigation always gives the best results as compared to flood irrigation. In summer apply irrigation at an interval of 5-7days whereas in winter slowly increased irrigation interval to 25-30days. In the rainy season, apply irrigation depending upon rainfall intensity. Bearing trees required irrigation during the fruit development period at an interval of 10-12days. After fertilizer application in February month give light irrigation.
Fertilizer Requirement for Mango Farming.
Mango crop required 27 kg of N, P2O5 about 7 kg and 30 kg of K2O per acre. For the crop of 1-3-year-old, Apply 5 to 20 kg of well-decomposed cow dung, 100-200 gm of Urea, 250-500 gm of Single super Phosphate and 175-350 gm of MOP per tree. For 4-6-year-old crop apply increased cow dung dose by 25 kg, give Urea@200-400 gm, SSP@500-700 gm and MOP@350-700 gm per Tree.
For 7-9-year-old crop, apply 60-90 kg of well-decomposed cow dung, Urea@400-500 gm, SSP@750-1000 gm, MOP@700-1000 gm per tree. For 10 year or above 10 year crop, apply 100 kg of well-decomposed cow dung, Urea@400-500 gm, SSP@1000 gm and MOP@1000 gm per Tree.
Give N and K dose of fertilizer in February month whereas applying the whole amount of cow dung and SSP in December month. Sometimes changing weather causes fruit and inflorescences drop. If fruit drop is observed to minimize its spray 13:00:45@10gm/Liter of water. Use mulching to minimize temperature effect. For good flowering and yield, spray 00:52:34 @150 gm/15 Liter of water twice at 8 days interval when flowering starts. It will prevent flower drop also.
Seeds Requirements for Mango Farming.
400 mango plant seedling will be enough for one hectare area.
Seed Treatment for Mango Farming.
Plant propagated through seed. For grafted varieties use the distance of 9m x 9m and plant them in the square system. Dug pits of 1x1x1m size at a distance of 9x9m one month earlier before planting. Expose them to the sun. Fill with a mixture of soil, 30 to 40 kg of FYM or Compost and 1 kg single super phosphate. Square and hexagonal planting can be adopted. Hexagonal planting accommodates 15% more plants.
Best Seed varieties for Mango Farming.
Alphonsos, Badami, Chaunsa, Dasheri, Kesar, Langra, Mulgoba, Neelam, Raspuri, Himsagar, Totapuri, Benishan Mango, Pairi, Fazli, Mallika, Amrapali, Rajapuri
Best Practices for Mango Farming
After planting remove inflorescence for better vegetative growth up to four years and at age of five, keep inflorescence for fruit formation. During this period, intercrop can be taken as it helps to give additional income also it helps to reduce weed growth. Onion, tomato, Radish, Beans, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Moong, gram, Lentil, Peach, Plum and Papaya etc. crops can be taken as inter-crop.
Young mango plants are very susceptible to low temperature and frost injury. Frost can damage grown-up trees also. In North India, frost usually occurs from December to March. Hence adequate protection from winter injury should be provided to the young plants. Thatches/gullies of Sarkanda or paddy trash should be prepared in the month of November. Keep the southern side of the ‘kullies’ open for aeration and sunshine.
The young plants can be killed by hot summers (loo). Grow area around the plants to provide desired shade. It should be grown at least one meter away from the plants. Whitewash the tree trunks in April or wrap the trunks with paper to avoid sun injury.
Weeding and earthing up should be done around the newly planted crop. Intercrop can be taken till plant gets well acquainted with surrounding atmosphere up to plant starts bearing. Depending upon variety it will take 5-6years. Intercropping helps to minimize weed control. A leguminous crop like moong, mash, gram and Lentil can be taken as intercrop. Also, crop like onion, tomato, radish, beans, cauliflower, cabbage is useful for intercropping. Avoid Bajra, maize and sugarcane as intercropped.