- Shoot and fruit borer.
The tiny larvae immediately after hatching enter into the plant tissues. At the initial stage, it attacks the terminal shoots and later on young fruits as soon as they start setting. The entry on the terminal shoots and later on young fruits as soon as they start setting. The entry hole is so small that it heals up as the fruits are grown. Young shoot and leaf petioles show signs of wilting and dropping due to insect attack.
1. Select small-fruited cluster bearing varieties/hybrids.
2. Clipping and destruction of infected shoots along with larvae at weekly intervals.
3. Sanitation through the removal of freshly damaged fruits during each harvest.
4. Apply Phorate 10G @ 20-25 kg/ha in the soil before transplanting.
5. Spray Neem Seed Karnel Extract (KSKE) @ 4 %.
6. Install plastic funnel trap baited with sex pheromone of brinjal shoot and fruit borer @ 100/ha at the spacing of 10 x 10 m at 15-20 days after transplanting. The pheromone septa should be changed at 30 days intervals.
7. Spary Spinosed 45 SC (0.5-0.6ml/litre water) as soon as attacks are seen and repeat the spray after 15 days.
2. Hadda Beetle
It feeds on the leaves particularly in the early stage of crop growth. Feeding is irregular and gives the plant a characteristic translucent like the appearance of leaves.
- Spray Malathion 50 EC @ 1.5 - 2.0 ml/liter water.
- Locate resistant varieties like Arka Shirish.
They suck the cell sap from the lower surface of leaves. Affected plants become pale and finally bronze. They also transmit the little leaf disease.
Control - Spray Imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 0.5-0.6 ml/liter water at 10 days interval.
Aphids are tiny insects and suck the cell sap of leaves and tender shoots. The affected leaves curl, fade gradually and dry up when the attack is severe.
Control - Spray the crop with Imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 0.5 - 0.6 ml / liter water.
- Root Knot Nematode
Plants remain stunted, leaves show chlorotic symptoms and knot-like swellings formed on the roots.
- Deep summer ploughing.
- Follower crop rotation or intercropping with marigold.
- Grow tolerant/ resistant varieties like Black Beauty.
- Incorporate neem cake @ 25 q/ha or Phorate 10G @ 20-25 kg/ha in the soil.
6. Broom rape
It is an entirely dependent root parasite of brinjal. The parasitic roots penetrate into the roots of brinjal and draw nourishment from there. The growth of the host plant is checked and they remain stunted and may even die.
- Destroy them before seed formation.
- Follow long term crop rotation if possible.
- Spray Copper Sulphate @ 25% on the soil.
The fungus attacks at both pre and post emergence stages of seedlings. The affected seedlings collapse at the collar region and finally die.
- Avoid over- watering.
- Drench the nursery beds with Captan of Thiram @ 0.4% at 5-7 days after germination.
- Fumigate the soil with Formalin (7%) by drenching 10-15cm deep soil.
- Give hot water treatments to seeds(52 degree celsius for 30 minutes).
- Treat the seeds with Captan or Thriram @ 3 g/kg seed.
- Spraying and soil drenching should be done with Bavistin (0.2%).
2. Phomopsis blight
It is a serious disease of brinjal. The small circular spots develop on the leaves which turn grey to brown with the light colored center. The disease also attacks the stem. The affected leaves become yellowish and die.
- Collect seed from healthy fruits.
- Grow resistant varieties like Pusa Bhairav, Florida Market etc.
- Give hot water treatment to seeds at 50 degree Celsius for 30 minutes.
- Treat seeds with Thiram or Captan @ 3 g/kg seed.
- Seed treatment with Bavistin @ 1 g/kg . Dip the seedlings in 0.1% solution of Bavistin for 30 minutes before transplanting followed by two sprays of (0.1%) at 10-15 days' intervals.
- Spray the crop with Chlorothalonil (0.2%) during flowering.
The infected plants retard growth, leaves turn yellow, lack of flowers and fruits set and finally the plant wilt and dies. Vascular tissues of the stem turn dark colored. The fungus also attacks the roots.
- Follow long term crop rotation with non- solanaceous crops.
- Grow resistant varieties.
- Provide proper drainage.
- Drench the soil with a mixture of Bavistin (01.%) + Dithane M-45(0.25%).
- Spray Bavistin (0.1%)
- Bacterial wilt.
Wilting, stunting and yellowing of leaves followed by the collapse of the entire plant are the characteristic symptoms. If the infected stem is cut and squeezed, the greyish white bacterial ooze comes out of the vascular region.
- Follow crop rotation.
- Rogue out the infected plants and destroy them.
- Locate resistant varieties like Pusa Purple Cluster, BB-7, BWR-12, BB-44, SM-6-6, etc.
- Raise nursery in disease free beds.
- Soil fumigation with Formalin at 7 % before sowing.
- Seed treatments with Streptocycline (150m ppm) for 90 minutes.
Leaves of affected plants exhibit mottling with raised dark green areas. Blisters are formed on the leaves and the size of leaves is reduced. The virus is transmitted through seeds and by aphids.
- Collect the seeds from virus free plants.
- Rogue out the infected plants from the field.
- Spray Imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 0.5 -0.6 ml/liter water at 15 days intervals.
It is caused by mycoplasma like an organism (MLO). The characteristic symptoms are reduction in the size of leaves, excessive growth of Auxillary and stunting of plant growth. Affected plants give resettle like appearance. The floral parts convert into leafy structures. This disease is transmitted by leafhopper.
- Rogue out the affected plants.
- Grow resistant varieties such as Arka Sheel, Manjari Gota etc.
- Treat the seed beds with Phorate (1.5kg a.i/ha) followed by seedling dip in tetracycline hydrochloride solution(500ppm).
- Spray the crop with Imidacloprid @ 0.5-0.6 ml/liter water at 10 days interval to control the vector.