Maize Farming in India: What, Why & How?

Maize Farming in India: What, Why & How?

Climate information for Maize Farming.

Maize is a topical crop and requires warm humid weather for its growth. The optimum temperature for growth is 20 to 30 degree Celsius. A minimum of 600 mm- 800mm of rainfall is required.

It is susceptible to frost at all stages of its growth. Maize cannot tolerate frost and hence, it is majorly a Kharif crop, sown just before the monsoons arrive in India.

Soil required for Maize Farming.

Maize can be cultivated on different soil textures ranging from sandy loam to clay loam soils. The soils must have good organic matter content to ensure higher productivity. The optimum pH for the soil should be in the range of 6 to 7.5.

The maize crop is susceptible to waterlogging and cannot withstand standing water conditions in the Kharif season.

maize farming

Recommended sowing dates for Maize Farming.

Maize is sown in the Kharif season from May to June.  In rabi season Maize can be sown from October to November.

Land preparation for Maize Farming.

Deep ploughing can be done every 2 to 3 years. Ploughing should be followed by two to three harrowing's. Farmyard manure should be applied during harrowing and mixed thoroughly with the soil. The maize crop is susceptible to waterlogging and therefore ridges and furrows should be made for the passage of water and prevent waterlogging. Ridges should be made 60 cm wide.

maize farming

Sowing methods and tips for Maize Farming.

The seeds can be sown by drilling with help of seed drill or by the dibbling method. The spacing of seeds varies from 60-75cm× 15-30cm depending upon the variety selected for grain purpose. In case of variety selected for fodder purpose, the spacing is 30cm×10cm. Seeds should be sown at a depth of 5-6cm in the soil.

Irrigation requirement for Maize Farming.

Irrigation is not required during the rainy period. The critical period for irrigation is from pre-flowering to maturity phase. Light irrigation in the root zone should be given to the maize crop initially. The crop should be irrigated from 45-60 days after sowing.

Fertilizer requirement for Maize Farming.

25 to 30 tonnes of farmyard manure should be applied per hectare. The recommended dose of NPK is 150:75:75 Kg per hectare. One-fourth quantity of Nitrogen and a complete amount of Phosphorus and potassium should be applied as a basal dose with the help of seed-cum-ferti drill at a distance of 5cm below the seeds. Half quantity of nitrogen is given as broadcasting between the rows after 30 to 35 days of sowing. The remaining one-fourth quantity of nitrogen is broadcasted between the rows 50 to 55 days after sowing (pre-tasseling stage).

maize farming

Seed requirement for Maize Farming.

For grain purpose, 20-25 kilogram seeds per hectare are required.

For fodder purpose, 40-50 kilogram seeds per hectare are required.

Seed treatment for Maize Farming.

The seeds should be treated with bavistin and captain 2 gram per kg of seed to protect from blight disease. The seeds should be treated first with a fungicide and then with an insecticide. Treat the seeds with imidacloprid at the rate of 1-2 gram per kilogram of seeds. then after seed treatment should be done with Azotobacter @ 5 grams per kilogram of seeds prior to sowing.

maize farming

Best seed varieties for Maize Farming.

  • Ganga safed 2- it matures within 95-100 days. The variety is resistant to downy mildew, leaf blight and lodging. It yields up to 50-55 quintal per hectare.
  • Hi- starch- the variety matures within 95-110 days. It is resistant to leaf blight and stem borer. The grains are bold in size.
  • Paras-  It is a flint corn variety. Is resistant to stalk rot and maydis leaf blight. The yield varies from 35 to 60 quintal per hectare.
  • Rattan- variety matures within 95-100 days. It is tolerant to downy mildew and top bowler attack. Yields an average of 40 to 45 per hectare.

Best cultivation practices for Maize Farming.

  • Pre-emergence herbicides such as Atrazine or Simazine @ 2 kg per hectare can be applied in the field to eradicate weeds.
  • Intercropping of maize can be practiced with moong, bean, coriander, soybean, sesame etc.
  • Deep plough the field to expose in the sun the egg masses and pupae of red hairy caterpillars.
  • Spray the crop with Thiodon dust at the rate 12 to 15 kilogram per hectare to protect from termite attack.

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Written by KrishiHub

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