Climate information for Lettuce Farming.
Lettuce is a cool-season crop. The ideal temperature for growth of lettuce is 20 to 30 degree Celsius. It requires rainfall between 1000mm to 1500 mm.
In India lettuce is mostly grown in cooler parts during winter months. High temperatures deteriorate crop quality.
Soil required for Lettuce Farming.
Lettuce can be cultivated on a variety of soils but good results are obtained on sandy loam to silt loam soils. Good organic matter in soil yields good produce. The ideal pH ranges from 6 to 7.
Lettuce cannot withstand waterlogged soils and acidic soils. High yields are obtained when the soil is rich in nitrogen and potassium.
Recommended sowing dates for Lettuce Farming.
Lettuce is sown in the month of September to November.
Land preparation for Lettuce Farming.
Lettuce requires a fine tilth for its growth. To achieve this the soil should be ploughed two to three times and then harrowing must be carried out. The nursery must be prepared for lettuce cultivation. The beds are made hundred cm wide and nearly 30 cm in height. Before preparation of beds farmyard manure and fertilizers are mixed in the soil.
Sowing methods and tips for Lettuce Farming.
Initially, the seeds are sown in the nursery at a distance of 15 to 20 cm. The seeds germinate within 3 to 5 days. After attaining an age of 4-7 weeks the seedlings are transplanted in the main field.
The seeds in the nursery should be sown at a depth of 1.5 to 2 cm with a spacing of 5cm. The seedlings should be sown at a depth of 2-4 cm.
After transplanting, the seedlings should be spaced at 45 cm × 30 cm.
Irrigation requirement for Lettuce Farming.
Frequent light irrigation is suitable for lettuce cultivation. After transplanting the seedlings in the main field irrigation must be given after every 5 to 7 days in light soils. whereas in heavy soils irrigation must be given after every 9-10 days. Drip irrigation can also be used to conserve water and increase yield.
Fertilizer requirement for Lettuce Farming.
Well decomposed farmyard manure @ 45 to 50 tons per hectare is required. The recommended NPK ratio is 90:75:75 Kg per hectare. The full quantity of phosphorus and half amount of nitrogen is given as basal dose. Remaining nitrogen is given 6 to 7 weeks after transplanting in the field.
A minimum of 25-kilogram nitrogen and maximum 90-kilogram nitrogen should be applied per hectare. Whereas a minimum of 30-kilogram phosphorus and maximum of 90 kilogram Phosphorus should be applied per hectare. In the case of potassium minimum, 50 kilograms and a maximum of 100-kilogram potassium can be applied per hectare.
Planting material requirement for Lettuce Farming.
1 kilogram of seeds is required to sow lettuce in one hectare.
More than 60000 seedlings are required per hectare area.
Seed treatment for Lettuce Farming.
The seeds should be treated with fungicides such as Ceresan@2g per kilogram of seeds to prevent damping off disease.
Best seed varieties for Lettuce Farming.
Iceberg- This variety matures within 70 to 80 days. It has a tight head of crispy leaves. Not tolerant of heat and summer.
Green Romaine- The variety mature within 70 days and has green to greenish White folded leaves. The leaves are crunchy and sweet in taste.
Punjab lettuce 1- The leaves are loose, light green in color and crispy in texture. Matures within 45 days after sowing and gives an average yield of 80-85 quintal per hectare.
Best cultivation practices for Lettuce Farming.
To avoid aphid attack spray imidacloprid @150 ml per 500 liters of water.
Downy mildew and mosaic can be controlled by using disease-free seeds for lettuce cultivation.