Climate Information for Bitter gourd Farming
Best climatic conditions required for Bitter gourd is high humid and required temperature should range from 25 to 30 Celsius, with average rainfall between 20 cm. to 35 cm.
It is a warm-season crop grown mainly in sub-tropical and hot-arid regions. High humidity at the time of vegetative growth renders the crop susceptible to various fungal diseases. The seed germinates best when temperatures are higher than 18C.
Suitable soil for Bitter gourd Farming.
Bitter gourd can be grown on alluvial soil, black soil. It yields best if it's grown in soil having texture sandy loam, with pH 5.8 to 6.6.
Soil having deep, good drainage system and is rich in organic matter good for this crop. Alluvial soil along the river beds is also good for the production of bitter gourds.
Recommended Sowing Times of Bitter gourd Farming.
Kharif: Sowing starts in June and lasts up to July
Zaid: Sowing starts in February and end in March
Land Preparation for Bitter gourd Farming.
The land is ploughed and brought to a fine tilth by 1-2 crosswise ploughing and levelled. Furrows are opened at a distance of 1.5-2.5 m depending on the support system to be adopted.
Should have row distance between 200 - 250 cm.
Plant/Seed should be sown at a distance of 40 to 50 cm.
Seed depth should be in between 2.0 and 3.0 cm.
Sowing methods and tips for Bitter gourd Farming.
Sowing should be done by the dibbling method.
Dibbling method: Sowing is done with the help of a small implement known as 'Dibbler'. It is a wooden or iron frame with pegs. The frame is pressed in the field and lifted and then one or two seeds are dropped by hand in each of the holes.
Irrigation Methods for Bitter gourd Farming.
After sowing, first irrigation should be given. In the summer season, irrigation is given after every 6-7 days and in the rainy season, irrigation is given only when needed. In total, 8-9 irrigations are required. It is necessary to keep the moisture well maintained at the root zone, to promote rapid taproot development.
Fertilizer Requirements for Bitter gourd Farming.
Bitter gourd crop required well-decomposed cow dung @20-25 ton/ha. Apply well-decomposed cow dung, a full dose of Potash and Phosphorus, and one-third of Nitrogen, two to three week before seed sowing. Apply a remaining dose of Nitrogen in two equal splits. Provide the first dose 25-30 days after sowing and second dose 40-50 days after sowing. The fertilizer is applied in a ring at 6-7 cm from the base of the stem. It is better to complete all the fertilizer applications just before the fruit set.
Minimum Nitrogen Content (Kg/Ha): 60, Maximum Nitrogen Content (Kg/Ha): 100, Minimum Phosphorus Content (Kg/Ha): 50, Maximum Phosphorus Content (Kg/Ha): 60, Minimum Potassium Content (Kg/Ha): 50, Maximum Potassium Content (Kg/Ha): 60
Seed Requirements for Bitter gourd Farming.
Seed required for sowing one hectare farmland is in between 4.0 Kg. and 5.0 Kg.
Seeds Treatment for Bitter gourd Farming.
Before sowing, seeds are soaked in 25-50 ppm Gibberellic acid and 25 ppm boron for 24 hours.
Best Seed varieties for Bitter gourd Farming.
Arka Harit, Pusa DO Mausmi, Pusa Vishesh, Pusa Aushadhi, Pusa Hybrid-1, Coimbatore long Vk-1, Solan Safaid, MDU-1, Punjab -14, Solan green, kashi Urvasi
Best Practices for Bitter gourd Farming.
Two shallow hoeings should be done before the spreading of the vine to control the weeds.
Weeding operations should be carried out in the soil at the time of fertilizer application and mainly earthing up is done during the rainy season.
The crop should be top-dressed with nitrogen at 30-35 days after sowing.