Climate information for Groundnut Farming
Groundnut requires tropical and subtropical climate. The optimum temperature for vegetative growth is between 27 to 30 degree Celsius. Rainfall of nearly 50- 100 cm is required.
Suitable soil for Groundnut cultivation.
Sandy loam to clay loam soil is required by groundnut. The pH of the soil should be around 5.5 to 7.
Waterlogging in the initial stage will result in root disease.
Recommended sowing time for Groundnut Farming.
Kharif groundnut is usually sown from June to July.
Rabi groundnut is sown in November.
Zaid groundnut is sown from February to march.
Land preparation for Groundnut Farming.
Groundnut is a bold seeded crop and therefore requires coarse seedbed. The field preparation includes- Ploughing the field with tractor-mounted Moldboards plough or disc plough 2-3 times, till the clods are broken down. In case of hardpan formation on the field, ploughing with chisel plough should be done once in a three-year duration. Also apply 12 ton per hectare farmyard manure to maintain soil tilth. In the case of surface crusting, application of lime at the rate of 2 ton per hectare should be done. Ridge and furrow method is mostly practiced in groundnut cultivation. Ridges should be made of width 60cm and the furrows should be 15cm deep. The length of the bed should range from 10 to 20 square meter depending on the slope of the land and type of soil.
Sowing methods and tips for Groundnut Farming.
Groundnut can be shown by different methods-
Drilling- with the help of mechanical seed drills or conventional bullock drew seed drills. Dibbling- with the help of hand at a depth of 4 cm. Ridge and furrow system is mostly practiced due to its efficacy. The depth of sowing should not be more than 5 cm to 7 cm. Slight compaction with a planner is necessary to ensure proper germination. Crop rotation with Maize, cotton, sorghum, rice. Mixed cropping with castor, sesame, red gram, Niger. Intercropping pigeon pea, pearl millet, red gram with groundnut.
Irrigation method for Groundnut Farming.
The critical stages of groundnut seed growth are-
Pre flowering phase - 1 to 25 days, Flowering phase - 26 to 60 days, Maturity phase - 61 to 105 days. Adequate soil moisture during these growth phases is essential. Irrigate the field after 4 to 5 days of sowing to break the surface crust. Then subsequent irrigation after 20 days of sowing. At each of the critical stages, two times irrigation must be given. Irrigation by sprinkler method is recommended in areas where water scarcity is a problem.
Fertilizer requirement for Groundnut Farming.
NPK should be given as per the recommended rate of 25:50:75 kg/hectare. All of the phosphorus is applied as a basal dose. The application of fertilizers is split into 3 parts. Nitrogen and Potassium are given in three splits, that is, 50% Nitrogen and Potassium as basal dose, 25% Nitrogen and Potassium at 20 days after sowing, 25% Nitrogen and Potassium at 45 days after sowing. Sulphur at the rate of 60 kilograms per hectare is recommended.
Zinc should be applied as a basal dose at the rate of 25 kilograms per hectare if zinc deficiency occurs. Foliar application of zinc @ 0.5% ZnSO4 can also be done. Spray 0.1% FeSO4 on 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing. Apply Borax at the rate of 10 kg per hectare. For soils deficient in calcium and sulphur, gypsum can be applied at the rate of 400 kilograms per hectare 40 to 45 days after sowing.
Seed requirement for Groundnut Farming.
125 kilogram per hectare of seed is required. Increase of bold seeded varieties the seed rate must be increased up to to 145 kilograms per hectare.
Seed treatment for Groundnut Farming.
Seed treatment should be done prior to sowing to avoid disease infestation such as root rot and collar rot and ensure proper germination. The following methods of seed treatment can be adopted- Treat the groundnut seeds with Trichoderma viride at the rate of 4 gram per kilogram of seeds. Treat the seeds with thiram or mancozeb at the rate of 4 gram per kilogram of seeds. Carbendazim can also be used at the rate of 2 gram per kilogram of seed. Biofertilizer treatment of the seeds with rhizobium culture at the rate of 600 gram for 125 kg seeds.
Precautions- do not treat the seeds with fungi sides after treatment with Trichoderma or Pseudomonas.
Best seed varieties for Groundnut Farming.
- TMV-7 - It is developed from pure line selection. The average duration is 100 to 105 days. it gives and yield of 11 to 19 quintal per hectare.
- TNAU CO6 - the duration of this variety is 125 to 130 days. Give some average yield of 19 quintals per hectare. It is tolerant of foliar diseases. It is a semi spreading type variety.
- VRIGn 5 - the duration of this variety is 105 to 110 days. Gives an average yield of 21 to 23 quintal per hectare. It has high reproductive efficiency. It is a bunch type variety.
- ALR 3- the average duration of this variety is 110 to 115 days. It gives a yield of 20 to 27 quintal per hectare. It is rust-resistant and tolerant to late leaf spot disease. It has a bunch type of growing habitat.
Best practices for Groundnut Farming.
Polythene film mulching - A slight modification in the ridge and furrow system is done. The beds or ridges after fertilizer application are covered with polythene film to create mulch. Holes in the polythene mulch can be made at the spacing of 10 cm. Seed rate must be kept the same as in conventional cultivation.
Earthing up - It is an important intercultural operation in groundnut farming. Earthing up is performed with the help of how 40 to 45 days after sowing. It helps to cover the pegs with soil and facilitates pod development.
Control of tikka disease- seed treatment with mancozeb or thiram.