Gladiolus Farming In India: What, Why & How?

Gladiolus Farming In India: What, Why & How?

Climate information for Gladiolus Farming.

Gladiolus cultivation requires a warm climate which is neither too hot nor too cold. The optimum temperature of Gladiolus cultivation ranges from 27 to 30 degree Celsius.

For gladiolus flowering, a minimum of 10 hours of sunlight is required. It cannot grow in shaded areas and is susceptible to frost.

Soil required for Gladiolus Farming.

Gladiolus can be grown on a variety of soils. Best growth is observed in loamy soils that are well-drained and rich in organic matter. The ideal pH of the soil should be 5.5 to 7.

Gladiolus cannot survive in waterlogged conditions. Acidic and heavy soils also hindered the growth of gladiolus plants.

Recommended sowing dates for Gladiolus Farming.

Gladiolus is a perennial crop and the cons can be sown from September to October to get best results.

Land preparation for Gladiolus Farming.

The land should be ploughed up to a depth of 25 to 30 cm. Farmyard manure at the rate of 25 to 30 tons per hectare should be mixed while land preparation to increase the organic matter content and soil fertility. Harrowing and levelling must also be done in the field to bring the soil to a fine tilth. After levelling the field ridges and furrows should be made in the field. The furrows serve as drainage channels to facilitate well-drained conditions in the soil.

 Gladiolus Farming

Sowing methods and tips for Gladiolus Farming.

Gladiolus is vegetatively propagated by the views of corms or tubers. The tubers are selected from 1-2 years old disease-free plants of size nearly 2 to 3 cm in diameter. Conical shaped tubers are found to give more flowering than flat-shaped tubers. The tubers are sown in rows on the ridges in the field at a spacing of 20 cm and at a depth of 7 to 10 cm.

Irrigation requirement for Gladiolus Farming.

No irrigation is required during the rainy season and during the sprouting of corms. In warm weather or summers, the irrigation can be applied every 3 to 4 days whereas during the winter season the irrigation can be applied every 7 to 10 days interval.

 Gladiolus Farming

Fertilizer requirement for Gladiolus Farming.

25 to 30 tons of farmyard manure is required per hectare of land area. The recommended dose of NPK  is 125:150:150 kilogram per hectare. To avoid iron deficiency foliar spray of feso4 @ 0.2% per hectare is required. 15 to 20 kilogram of znso4 per hectare can be applied in the field.

A minimum of 125 kilograms and a maximum of 250-kilogram nitrogen per hectare can be applied in the field. A minimum of 100 kilograms and a maximum of 150 kilograms of potassium and phosphorus can be applied in the field for gladiolus cultivation.

Planting material required for Gladiolus Farming.

For Gladiolus cultivation 1.5 to 2 lakh corms or tubers per hectare are required.

Planting material Treatment for Gladiolus Farming.

The corms or tubers are treated with bavistin or captan @ 0.2% for 30 minutes. These corms are then shade dried and stored at a low temperature.

Just before planting, the corms are treated by dipping in mancozeb or carbendazim at the rate of 1 gram per liter of water to prevent disease infestation.

 Gladiolus Farming

Best varieties of Gladiolus for Gladiolus Farming.

  • Arka Gold-  This variety is developed by IIHR Bangalore. It produces pink coloured florets with white spots. It is a high yielding variety which is grown mainly for cut flower purposes.
  • Arka Naveen- This variety is released by IIHR Bangalore. Purple colored flowers with pale yellow spots are produced by this variety.
  • Apsara- It is an early maturing variety produced by IIHR Bangalore. Purple coloured flowers with yellow specks are produced by this variety.
  • Mohini- It is the midseason and early maturing variety which produces light yellow colored florets.
  • Shri Ganesh- The average yield of this variety is 2 lakh spikes per hectare which produce pale yellow to dull white florets.

Best cultivation practices for Gladiolus Farming.

Earthing up should be practiced in the gladiolus plants when they reach up to a height of 15 to 20cm.

  • To control the mosaic virus, spray acephate @kilogram in 500 liters of water per hectare.
  • Spray Malathion 50 EC at the rate of 2ml per liter of water to avoid the attack of aphids and thrips.
  • Hand weeding 4-5 times is required.
  • Mulching can also be practiced in the field to control water loss and prevent weeds.
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