Climate information for Gerbera Farming.
Gerbera can be cultivated in tropical as well as subtropical climates. Gerbera grows well in poly houses. It requires a temperature between the range of 14 to 27 degree Celsius. It requires an average rainfall of 550-650mm.
In India gerbera is grown in areas having from 23 to 25 degree Celsius and night temperature 12 to 15-degree Celsius. The plants are susceptible to frost. Gerbera requires diffused sunshine to accelerate its growth and produce quality flowers.
Soil required for Gerbera Farming.
Gerbera can be grown on soils that are porous and well-drained for better root growth. Gerbera grows best in red laterite soils. Optimum pH of the soil should range from 5.5 to 7.
It cannot tolerate soil salinity. Neutral to slightly alkaline soil is suitable.
Recommended sowing dates for Gerbera Farming.
Gerbera can be sown in almost any season.
Kharif- Mostly, propagation is carried out in the month of June-July.
Spring- in the month of January-March.
Land preparation for Gerbera Farming.
Soil sterilization is an important procedure practiced in Gerbera cultivation to avoid infestation of Phytophthora. In this method, the soil is covered with a plastic sheet for 2 months prior to sowing. The heat from sunlight kills the pathogen. Formalin at the rate of 7.5 liters per hundred square meters can also be sprayed.
Deep ploughing of soil should be done to increase porosity as the roots penetrate deep. After playing Harrow the field two to three times to break large clods and soil should be mixed with organic manure or FYM to increase its fertility. Ridges and furrows are to be made on the field with the help of a bed planter. Dimensions of the bed should be from 60 cm to 100 cm wide and 30cm - 45 cm in height. The distance between beds should be 30 cm.
Sowing methods and tips for Gerbera Farming.
It is commercially propagated through suckers or tissue culture. Most commonly suckers are used. Transplanting from the nursery can also be done wherein seeds are sown that germinate within two to four weeks. Seedlings should have at least 4-5 leaf leaves and should not be less than 3 months old. The plantlets are placed in a zigzag fashion on ridges with more than 25% of roots above the soil.
The spacing should be kept 30-40 cm × 25-30 cm.
Irrigation requirement for Gerbera Farming.
Gerbera requires frequent light irrigation. Average water requirement per day is nearly 600 ml per plant. Initially, sprinkler irrigation can be given up to 1 month to ensure root development. Thereafter, drip irrigation is recommended as it conserves water. The irrigation by drip can be given once in every 2 to 3 days 15-20 minutes.
Fertilizer requirement for Gerbera Farming.
50-75 tons of well-decomposed farmyard manure is required per hectare. Fertilizers are usually given along with water through drip irrigation 3 weeks of the plantation. Recommended NPK ratio is 10:15:20 gram per meter square per month up to 3 months. As the plants grow the dose of fertilizer is increased. Boron, calcium, magnesium can be applied at the rate of 1.5 gram per liter of water once in a month.
Minimum 10-gram nitrogen and phosphorus and maximum 15-gram nitrogen and phosphorus should be applied per meter square. Minimum 20-gram potassium and maximum of 35-gram potassium should be applied per meter square in the field.
Planting material requirement for Gerbera Farming.
For on hectare 80000 to 100000 plants are needs.
Seed treatment for Gerbera Farming
Apply Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with + water before 4 to 6 hours before crop plantation. It is eco-friendly and does not produce any toxic effect on plants. And it also prevents soil burn disease.
Best seed varieties
- Pink elegance- This variety is hybrid and grows up to a height of 1 foot. Largely used for cut flowers and bouquets. It is suitable for planting in pots and containers.
- Salvadore- Gives rose color flowers. It produces nearly 12 to 13 flowers per plant. The plant grows up to 35 cm and spreads up to 40-45cm. Produces nearly 4-5 suckers.
- Winter queen - The flowers produced by this variety are white color. Produces 14 to 15 flowers per plant. The diameter of flowers extends up to 10 centimeters. 5-6 suckers are produced.
- Blackjack- Purple color flowers are produced by this variety.
Best cultivation practices
- Inferior quality flowers should be removed 45 days after planting their low quality. This helps the plant to produce good quality flowers further.
- Dried, old, infested leaves need to be removed from the field to avoid disease infestation.
- Leaf spot of gerbera can be controlled by treating the plant with Benomyl at the rate of 0.1%.
- Weeding should be practiced initially up to 3 months of transplantation.