Climate information for Cucumber farming
Best climatic conditions required for Cucumber is high humid and required temperature should ranges from 25 to 35 Celsius, with average rainfall between 20 cm. to 30 cm.
It grows best under conditions of high temperature, humidity, and light intensity and with an uninterrupted supply of water and nutrients.
Soil required for Cucumber farming.
Cucumber can be grown on alluvial soil. It yields best if it's grown in soil having texture sandy loam, with pH 6.0 to 7.0.
Loamy soil which is rich in organic matter and has well drainage system is best for the cucumber farming. When the pH is too low, add ground calcitic limestone, or an equal amount of dolomitic limestone when the magnesium level in the soil is low, to raise it to a desirable level.
Recommended sowing dates for Cucumber farming.
Kharif: Sowing starts from June and lasts up to July
Zaid: Sowing starts from January and ends in April
Land preparation for Cucumber farming.
For cucumber plantation, it requires well prepared and weed free field. To bring soil to fine tilth, 3-4 ploughings must be done before planting. FYM or cow dung is mixed with soil to enrich the field. Soil fumigation aids in the control of weeds and soil-borne diseases. Fumigation alone may not provide satisfactory weed control under clear plastic. Black plastic mulching before field planting conserves moisture, increases soil temperature, and increases early and total yield. Plastic should be placed immediately over the fumigated soil.
Greenhouse : greenhouse is a simple structure constructed with locally available materials such as bamboo, timber etc. The ultra violet (UV) film is used as cladding materials. Simple techniques are, however, adopted for increasing or decreasing the temperature and humidity. Even light intensity can be reduced by incorporating shading materials like nets. The temperature can be reduced during summer by opening the side walls. Such structure is used as rain shelter for crop cultivation. Otherwise, inside temperature is increased when all sidewalls are covered with plastic film. This type of greenhouse is mainly suitable for cold climatic zone.
Sowing methods and tips for Cucumber farming.
Dibbling method : Sowing is done with the help of a small implement known as 'Dibbler'. It is a wooden or iron frame with pegs. The frame is pressed in the field and lifted and then one or two seeds are dropped by hand in each of the hole. Should have row distance between 120 - 150 cm. Plant/Seed should be sown at a distance of 30 to 45 cm. Seed depth should be in between 2.0 and 4.0 cm.
Irrigation requirement for Cucumber farming.
Cucumber plants have shallow roots and require ample soil moisture at all stages of growth. When fruit begins setting and maturing, adequate moisture becomes especially critical. An irregular water supply, particularly during blossoming and fruit development, can detrimentally affect fruit quality and result in increased nubins or hooked fruit. In rainy season, it does not require any irrigation. In summer season, it requires frequent irrigation. Provide irrigation at interval four to seven days. Two days before harvesting, apply irrigation. It will keep fruits fresh, shiny and attractive.
Fertilizer requirement for Cucumber farming.
Apply well decomposed cow dung, full dose of Potash and Phosphorus, and one-third of Nitrogen, at the time of seed sowing. Apply remaining dose of Nitrogen in two equal splits. Provide first dose 25-30 days after sowing and second dose 40-50 days after sowing.
Minimum Nitrogen Content (Kg/Ha): 40, Maximum Nitrogen Content (Kg/Ha): 50, Minimum Phosphorus Content (Kg/Ha): 20, Maximum Phosphorus Content (Kg/Ha): 30, Minimum Potassium Content (Kg/Ha): 20, Maximum Potassium Content (Kg/Ha): 25
Seed required for Cucumber farming.
Seed required for sowing one hectare farm land is in between 2.5 Kg. and 3.0 Kg.
Seed Treatment for Cucumber farming.
Before sowing treat seed with Carbendizim@2gm/kg of seeds. After chemical treat seeds with Trichoderma viiridi@4gm per kg of seeds. Dry seeds in shade and then do sowing immediately.
Best varieties for Cucumber farming.
Pusa Barkha, V, Poinsett, Swarna Poorna, Swarna Sheetal, Swarna Ageti, Pant Khira – 1, Poona Khira, Himangi, khiran-75, Khiran-90.
Best cultivation practices for Cucumber farming.
Keep bed weed free during early stage of growth. In absence of proper control measures, weed can cause yield loss of 30%. 15-20days after sowing, carry out intercultural operations.
It is recommended not to rotate to crops in the same family during a 3-year cycle for most diseases, but 5 years must be maintained after Fusarium wilt incidence.
Salinity damages may be caused by high E.C. ground water, irrigation water, soil or growth medium, and by excessive application of fertilizers.
Cucumber vines can be trained on trellises to save space and improve yield and fruit quality. But the high cost of trellising makes commercial production by this method uneconomical in most cases. Greenhouse cucumbers must be trellised, because the long fruit bend if they rest on the ground.