Bengal Gram Farming in India: What, Why and How?

Bengal Gram Farming in India: What, Why and How?
Bengal gram farming

Climate Information for Bengal gram Farming.

Best climatic conditions required for Bengal gram is moderate humid and required temperature should range from 22 to 32 Celsius, with average rainfall between 60 cm. to 95 cm.

Excessive rains soon after sowing or at flowering and fruiting or hailstorms at ripening cause heavy loss.

Suitable soil for Bengal gram Farming.

Bengal gram can be grown on alluvial soil, arid soil. It yields best if it's grown in soil having texture sandy loam, clay loam, with pH 5.5 to 7.0.

On dry and light soils, the plants remain short while on heavy soils having high water retention capacity, the vegetative growth is abundant, the light becomes limiting and fruiting is retarded.

Recommended Sowing Times for Bengal gram Farming.

Rabi: Sowing starts in November and lasts up to December.

kharif: Sowing starts in June and ends in July.

Land Preparation for Bengal gram Farming.

Bengal Gram Farming

Very fine and compact seedbed is not good for Bengal gram, it required rough seedbed. If it is cultivated as a mixed crop the land should be plough to a fine tilth. If Bengal gram crop is taken after a Kharif fellow carry out one deep ploughing during the monsoon as it will help to conserve rainwater. Before sowing plough the land only once. If the soil appears to be deficient in moisture run a roller about a week before sowing.

Sowing methods and tips for Bengal gram Farming.

Sowing should be done in given ways .kharif--In north India, it is sown by pora method. When the seed is dropped in poraor nai (a wooden structure) by hand is called pora method. Rabi-Sow seeds with help of seed drill or local plough. Drilling method is exclusive to India. In this method, one person ploughs a hole in the land and the other person sows the seed. Ox is the most commonly used ‘person’ to plough the land.

Should have row distance between 25 - 35 cm.

Plant/Seed should be sown at a distance of 10 to 15 cm.

Seed depth should be in between 8.0 and 10.0 cm.

Irrigation Methods for Bengal gram Farming.

One or two need-based irrigation is enough for gram crop. If one irrigation is available, give it during pod initiation stage. If two or more irrigations are available, additional irrigations can be given during the branching stage along with pod development. Do not give excessive irrigation, also do not force crop to water scarcity. Extra irrigation leads to excessive growth and succulent to attract pest and disease

Fertilizer Requirement for Bengal gram Farming.

Potassium must be given after the soil test report. Add a full dose of phosphorus, potash and half dose of nitrogen at the time of sowing. The remaining dose of nitrogen is added after 4-5 weeks of sowing.

Minimum Nitrogen Content (Kg/Ha): 12, Maximum Nitrogen Content (Kg/Ha): 15, Minimum Phosphorus Content (Kg/Ha): 12, Maximum Phosphorus Content (Kg/Ha): 15, Minimum Potassium Content (Kg/Ha): 0, Maximum Potassium Content (Kg/Ha): 0

Bengal Gram Farming

Seeds Requirements for Bengal gram Farming.

Seed required for sowing one hectare farmland is in between 55.0 Kg. and 65.0 Kg.

Seed Treatment for Bengal gram Farming.

Mix Trichoderma@2 kg/acre + decomposed cow dung@50 kg then cover it with jute bags for 24-72 hrs. Then spray this on moist soil before sowing to control the soil-borne disease. To prevent seeds from soil-borne disease they should be treated with fungicide Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63%WP(Saaf)@2 gm/kg of seed before sowing. In termite affected soil, treat seeds with Chlorpyrifos 20EC@10 ml/kg of seeds before sowing.

Best Seed varieties for Bengal gram Farming.

ICCC, JG, JAKI 9218, ICCV 2, KAK 2, JGK 1, Vihar, LBeG 7, B-124, BDN- 9-3, Haryana Chana-1, JG-315, Pant G-186, Gaurav, Avrodhi.

Bengal gram Farming

Best Practices for Bengal gram Farming.

Sowing on right time is necessary as early sowing leads to excessive vegetative growth, also crop gets affected due to wilt while late sowing, crop make poor vegetative growth and inadequate root development.

To keep a check on weeds, take first hand weeding or with wheel hoe 25-30days after sowing and second if needed after 60 days of sowing. Mixed Fluchloralin 45EC@1600 ml/ha in 300-400 Liter of water and apply in the field before seed sowing. Simultaneously for effective weed control, pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin @ 2 liters/350-litre water on the third day after sowing for one acre Hand weeding or inter culture with the help of hoe is always better than herbicides because intercultural operations improve aeration in the soil.

Avoid sowing of the same crop continuously in the field. Follow proper crop rotation. Crop rotation with cereals will help in controlling the soil-borne disease. Common rotation are Kharif fallow-chickpea, Kharif fallow- gram + wheat/barley/Raya, Chari-gram, bajra-gram, rice/maize-gram.

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