Climate Information for Cauliflower Farming.
Best climatic conditions required for Cauliflower is moderate humidity and required temperature should range from 18 to 30 Celsius, with average rainfall between 20 cm. to 25 cm.
The high temperature in cauliflower caused richness, fuzziness, leafy curd, buttoning, yellowing and loosening of curds. The low-temperature injury in cauliflower causes blindness.
Suitable soil for Cauliflower Farming.
Cauliflower can be grown on alluvial soil, black soil, red soil.
It yields best if it's grown in soil having texture sandy loam, clay loam, with pH 6.0 to 7.0.
Add lime in case of low pH soil( below pH 5.0). Fertile, medium to heavy well-drained soils is best suited to grow.
Recommended Sowing Times of Cauliflower Farming.
Early maturity group - May-June
Midseason maturity group - July-August
Mid-late maturity group - September.
Land Preparation for Cauliflower Farming.
Bring soil to a fine tilth by ploughing land thoroughly. One deep ploughing and 2 to 3 light ploughing followed by planking is essential to obtain fine tilth. Apply 250 q of well rotten FYM or compost before first ploughing.
Sowing methods and tips for Cauliflower Farming.
Sowing should be done by dibbling and transplanting method by dibbling and transplant method.
Dibbling method: Sowing is done with the help of a small implement known as 'Dibbler'. It is a wooden or iron frame with pegs. The frame is pressed in the field and lifted and then one or two seeds are dropped by hand in each of the holes.
Transplanting methods: Rise the plant in the nursery first then transplant to the main field.
Should have row distance between 45 - 60 cm.
Plant/Seed should be sown at a distance of 30 to 45 cm.
Seed depth should be in between 1.0 and 2.0 cm.
Irrigation methods for Cauliflower Farming.
Cauliflower needs a sufficient amount of water in order to produce its leafy heads. First irrigation should be immediately after transplanting. Depending upon the soil, climatic condition, apply irrigation at an interval of 6-7 days in summer season and 8-12 days during the winter season. Optimum moisture level at the time of curd formation is very essential. Excess irrigation should be avoided at maturity time.
Fertilizer Requirement for Cauliflower Farming.
Cauliflower is a heavy feeder so it required a large quantity of fertilizer. A full dose of potassium and phosphorus and half dose of nitrogen as basal dose while remaining is applied in 2 to 3 split-dose through broadcasting.
Minimum Nitrogen Content (Kg/Ha): 120, Maximum Nitrogen Content (Kg/Ha): 150, Minimum Phosphorus Content (Kg/Ha): 100, Maximum Phosphorus Content (Kg/Ha): 120, Minimum Potassium Content (Kg/Ha): 80, Maximum Potassium Content (Kg/Ha): 100
Seed Requirements for Cauliflower Farming.
Seed required for sowing one-hectare farmland is in between 0.4 Kg. and 0.7 Kg.
Seed Treatment for Cauliflower Farming.
Before sowing dip seeds in hot water (50°C for 30 min). After treatment dry them in shade and then sow on the bed. Blackout mostly observed in Rabi. As a preventive measure seed treatment with mercury, chloride is essential. For that dip seeds in Mercury chloride@1 gm/Liter solution for 30 min after that dry them in the shed. Crop grown in sandy soils is more prone to stem rot. To prevent it does seed treatment with Carbendazim 50%WP@3 gm/kg of seeds.
Best Seed varieties for Cauliflower Farming.
Pusa Katki, Pusa Deepali, Pusa Meghna, Pant Gobhi -1, Pant Gobhi -3, Pusa Synthetic, Pusa Hybrid-2, Pusa Aghani, Pant Shubhra, Hisar-1, Snowball-16, Pusa Snowball-1, Pusa Snowball-2, kashi kunwari, Late Dania.
Best Practices for Cauliflower Farming.
Sow seeds in the nursery and apply irrigation, fertilizer dose as per requirement. Seedlings are ready to transplant within 25-30 days after sowing. For transplantation use three to four weeks old seedlings.
Water the nursery beds morning and evening every day with a fine rose-can for the first few days and light irrigation later on. Protect nursery beds from hot sunshine and heavy rains
Weed creates a serious problem in the cultivation of the crop due to wide spacing, higher fertility and frequency irrigation. One or two shallow hoeings should be done early-stage to uproot weeds and facilitate good aeration.