Capsicum Farming in India: What, Why and How?

Capsicum Farming in India: What, Why and How?

Climate Information for  Capsicum Farming.

Best climatic conditions required for Capsicum is high humidity and required temperature should range from 21 to 30 Celsius, with average rainfall between 60 cm. to 120 cm.

Capsicum is basically a cool-season crop and day temperature less than 30C is favorable for growth and yield. Very high temperate favors flowering and fruit set. Low night temperature favors flowering and fruits.


Suitable soil for Capsicum Farming.

Capsicum Farming

Capsicum can be grown on alluvial soil, peat soil.

It yields best if it's grown in soil having texture sandy soil, clay soil, Highly porous with pH 6.0 to 7.0

It gives the best result when grown under sandy loam soil having high fertility and good drainage system. It can also withstand in acidic soil to some extent.

Recommended Sowing Times  Capsicum Farming.

Rabi: Sowing starts in October and lasts up to November.

Land Preparation for Capsicum Farming.

For capsicum plantation, fields should be well-prepared pebbles, clods etc, should be removed from bed surface. To bring the soil to a fine tilth, 5-6 ploughings followed by planking’s must be done. At the time of land preparation, FYM (Farm Yard Manure) or compost is mixed with the soil. The beds should be irrigated with water and kept wet at the time of transplantation.

Sowing methods and tips for  Capsicum Farming.

Low tunnel technology: This technology is used to produce an early yield of capsicum in early summer. It helps to protect the crop from cold season i.e. in the month of December to mid-February. Beds of 2.5 m width are sown in the month of December. Use row to row spacing of 130 cm and line to line spacing of 30 cm for seedling sowing. Before sowing supportive rods of 45-60 cm length are fixed in the soil. Cover the field with a plastic sheet (100 gauge thickness) with the help of support rods. The plastic sheet should be removed mainly in the month of February when the temperature is suitable outside.

Capsicum Farming

Dibbling method: Sowing is done with the help of a small implement known as 'Dibbler'. It is a wooden or iron frame with pegs. The frame is pressed in the field and lifted and then one or two seeds are dropped by hand in each of the holes.

Irrigation Methods for  Capsicum Farming.

Light irrigation is given immediately after seed sowing. Then next irrigation is given immediately after transplanting, and then later irrigation is given when requires. In arid and semi-arid regions irrigation is required at proper intervals.

Capsicum Farming

Fertilizer Requirement for  Capsicum Farming.

Apply 250 q FYM or compost. A full dose of FYM, Potassium, phosphorus and 1/3rd dose of Nitrogen is mixed in rows just before transplanting and the rest of the nitrogen dose is given in two equal splits i.e. one after one month of transplanting and second after two months of transplanting.

Minimum Nitrogen Content (Kg/Ha): 120, Maximum Nitrogen Content (Kg/Ha): 140, Minimum Phosphorus Content (Kg/Ha): 65, Maximum Phosphorus Content (Kg/Ha): 75, Minimum Potassium Content (Kg/Ha): 65, Maximum Potassium Content (Kg/Ha): 75

Seed Requirements for  Capsicum Farming.

Seed required for sowing one-hectare farmland is in between 0.5 Kg. and 0.6 Kg.

Seed Treatment for  Capsicum Farming.

Before sowing soak the seeds in Thiram or Captan, Ceresana etc. @2gm/kg of seeds before sowing to prevent the crops from seed-borne diseases.

Best Seed varieties for  Capsicum Farming.

Indra (green), Orobelle (yellow colour), Indra, California Wonder, Yolo Wonder, Bharat, Chinese Giant, Arka Mohini, Arka Gaurav, Arka Basabt, Pusa DeeptI, Ruby King, Early Giant, Bullnose.

Best Practices for  Capsicum Farming.

For a good yield of the crop, weeding must be done at proper intervals. Earthing up after 2-3 weeks of transplanting will help to remove weeds from the fields. First, weeding is done after 30 days of transplanting then second weeding is done after 60 days of transplanting.

Capsicum Farming

Avoid heavy application of nitrogenous fertilizers.

For capsicum farming, nursery beds are raised firstly. Seedbeds of 300 x 60 x 15cm are prepared to raise seedlings. Seeds are sown in raised nursery beds and after sowing cover the nursery beds with a thin layer of soil manure. Light irrigation is necessary after sowing the seeds in raising beds for optimum germination of seeds. Transplanting is done when seedlings attain 4-5 leaves. Transplanting is done in prepared fields. Transplanting is mainly done in the evening during cloudy weather. Mainly 50-60 old seedlings are used for transplanting.

To avoid sunscald, transplant the seedling at closer spacing, grow the varieties having abundant foliage, rises the crop with high density.

To prevent flower and fruit drop, give light and frequent irrigations at flowering and fruiting set stages.

To avoid blossom end rot, supply light irrigation regularly, located the soil having good water retention capacity.

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