Climate information for Broccoli Farming.
In India broccoli is grown mostly during the spring season. The optimum temperature requirements for broccoli growth ranges from 16 to 18-degree Celsius in the night to 25 to 27-degree Celsius during the day. It requires an annual rainfall of 800 mm-1000mm. Partial shade hinders bolting phenomena in broccoli. Frost can also damage broccoli growth.
Suitable Soil for Broccoli Farming
Broccoli cultivation can be practiced on a wide range of soil types. Broccoli requires soil with a pH range of 5 to 6.5. Well-drained, moist soil of sandy loam to silt loam texture with good organic matter content and slight acidity is ideal.
High amounts of organic matter and good soil fertility enhances broccoli production. Broccoli has moderate tolerance to salinity in the soil.
Recommended sowing dates for Broccoli Farming.
Planting broccoli during early Spring to late summer gives a high yield. The optimum time for sowing is from August to September.
Land preparation for Broccoli Farming.
Land should be ploughed three to four times and mixed with nearly 40 tons of farmyard manure before planting to obtain a desired fine tilth. The weeds should be removed from the field. Planting can be done on raised beds for which ridges and furrows are to be made.
Sowing methods and tips for Broccoli Farming.
Seeds sowing can be done by broadcasting or by seed drill. Seedlings can also be transplanted for which the seeds are sown in the nursery at a spacing of 5 centimeters. The seeds are covered with fine sand and water regularly with the help of a sprinkler. The seeds germinate after 6-7 days and can be transplanted in the field after 30 to 35 days.
The seeds are sown 1.5 to 2 cm deep.
The spacing should be kept between 30-45cm × 30-45cm.
Irrigation Methods for Broccoli Farming.
Life-saving irrigation should be given immediately after transplanting. Afterwards, irrigation should be supplied within an interval of a week in the summer season and 2 weeks interval in the winter season. Adequate measures for proper drainage should be adopted in the rainy season. The best method is drip irrigation which contains soil moisture and conserves water.
Fertilizer Requirement for Broccoli Farming
Nearly 45 tons of farmyard manure should be applied. Then NPK requirement is 125:60:60 Kg per hectare. The nitrogen can be supplied in the form of urea, potassium in the form of Muriate of potash and phosphorus in the form of single super phosphate. A full dose of phosphorus, potassium and half dose of nitrogen is given as a basal dose. The remaining nitrogen is given one month after planting.
The amount of Nitrogen can vary from 125 kilograms (Min) to 150 kilograms (Max) per hectare. Whereas the amount of potassium and phosphorus can vary from a minimum of 60 kilograms to a maximum of 100 kilograms per hectare.
Seed Requirement for Broccoli Farming.
Nearly 300-500 gram of seed is required for one hectare of land depending upon the variety.
For seedlings, nearly 66000 plants are required for 1-hectare area.
Seed treatment for Broccoli Farming.
Hot water treatment of seeds for 30 minutes at 58-60degree Celsius protects the seed from disease infestation.
Seeds are also treated with 1 gram Bavistin or copper oxychloride @ 1.5 gram per liter of water for one hectare of seeds. Seed treatment can also be done with thiram or captan and at the rate 2 to 3 gram per kilogram of seed.
Before transplanting the seedlings should also be dipped in a fungicide solution to prevent disease infestation.
Best seed varieties for Broccoli Farming.
Punjab broccoli 1- It produces green to dark green compact heads. This variety matures in about 60- 65 days. The average yield is 170-180 quintal per hectare.
- Belstar- It is a hybrid variety which grows well in the winter season. It has blue-green heads that mature within 65 days. It is heat tolerant.
- Destiny- It has exceptional tolerance for heat. It produces small to medium heads with a purple tinge. This variety matures in 70 to 75 days.
- Blue wind- It matures within 50-60 days. It produces bluish-green heads which are large and tender.
Best practices for Broccoli Farming.
Pre-emergence herbicides such as pendimethalin or fluchloralin can be used to control weed growth @ 1-2 liter per 500 liters of water.
- Downy mildew can be controlled by spring mancozeb at the rate of 0.25% at 7-day intervals.
- Pheromone traps can be used to control caterpillars and moths.
- To control aphids, spray neem oil at the rate of 4%.