Climate Information for Beetroot Farming.
Beet is a cool-season crop but it can also be grown in slightly warmer weather. Cool weather helps in the accumulation of more sugar content in the roots. The optimum temperature for root and color development is 18-21 degree Celsius while temperature below 10 degree Celsius causes bolting before attaining the marketable size of roots which is undesirable. At 30 degree Celsius and above, the accumulation of sugar in the roots is checked.
Temperature above 30 degree leads to undeveloped root and poor coloration. High rainfall area will bring root cause disease in the early stage.
Suitable soil for Beetroot Farming.
Beetroot can be grown on almost all types of soil but deep, fertilize and well-drained loam soil is best suited. It is highly sensitive soil but thrives well in alkaline soil s having a pH as high as6.5 to 7.5. Too much acidic soil is harmful to beetroot farming.
Land Preparation for Beetroot Farming.
One deep ploughing by soil turning plough and 2 to 3 light ploughing by cultivator followers by planking is essential to get the soil to a fine tilth.
Recommended Sowing Times for Beetroot Farming.
In the northern plains, beet is sown during September - November, whereas in the southern plains is sowing is extended from July to November. In hills, the seed is sown from March to July.
Seeds Requirements for Beetroot Farming.
Use 80,000 plants for planting in one hectare land.
Sowing methods and tips for Beetroot Farming.
Seeds are sown on the ridge spaced at 30-45 cm apart and 8-10cm apart from plant to plant. Sow the seeds 2-3 cm deep. Later on, thinning should be done to maintain a 10-15cm distance in rows.
Seed Treatment for Beetroot Farming.
Before sowing, the seed should be water-soaked for 12 hours to facilitate early germination.
Fertilizer Requirement for Beetroot Farming.
Apply 200-250 q/ha well decomposed FYM or compost at the time of the last ploughing. Also, apply 30-40 kg N, 100-120 kg phosphorus, 60 -70 g potassium and 20 kg borax/ha as a basal dose and 30-40 kg N/ha at 3 to 4 weeks after sowing as a top dressing.
Irrigation methods and tips for Beetroot Farming.
Irrigation of the field immediately after seed sowing. Light but regular irrigations should be given to maintain the optimum level of moisture in the field for better germination, growth and yield. Total 4-6 irrigation are required by beet. Stagnation of water is harmful.
Best seed varieties for Beetroot Farming.
Crimson Globe, Detroit Dark red, Early wonder, Crosby Egyptian.
Thinning methods for Beetroot farming.
The seed of beetroot is multigerm which produce 3-4 seedlings per seed ball, hence, thinking is an important operation. To avoid competition among seedlings remove the seedlings leaves a single robust plant per seed ball. The thinning should be done when seedlings attain 4-4 leaves. Also uproot the weak, diseased and insect affected plants to maintain the distance of 10-15 cm between the plants in the rows.
Inter - Culture and weed control in Beetroot Farming.
Earthing up is essential to cover the exposed roots. The field should be kept free from weeds during the first two months of sowing. One of two shallow hoeings should be done carefully without damaging the roots. The pre-plant soil incorporation of Trifluraline at 0.5-1.0kg /ha or Cycloatenat 3-4kg/ha and pre-emergence application of Pyrazon at 1.5 - 2.0 kg/ha or Pendimethalin at 1.0 kg/ha gave good control of weeds in sugar beet.
Harvesting and Yield in Beetroot Farming.
The crop is ready to harvest within 55-70 days. Harvest the roots when they attain the size of 3 to 5 cm in diameter. The crop yields 200-500 q/ha having a sucrose per cent of 15 to 17.
Best Practices for Beetroot Farming.
Heart rot Crown rot.
The disorder is caused by a boron deficiency. The leaves die in the crown which is covered with small deformed leaves. The older leaves wilt and become necrotic. The entire crown becomes necrotic and starts to decay. The inner portion of affected roots turn black and become unfit for consumption.
- Soil application of borax (10-15kg/ha) or foliar spray of boric acid (0.2%) 2-3 times at the vegetative stage can check it.
- Avoid the sowing of beet in acidic soils.
- Avoid drought condition by supplying regular irrigation.
It is due to the deficiency of manganese. The leaves of affected plants show yellowish-green Chlorotic mottled areas. The chlorotic areas become necrotic resulting in the breaking of the lamina. The leaf margins roll upward and turn into an arrow-shaped outline that remains upright. Generally, deficiency of Mn is observed in very sandy and very alkaline soils.
- Its deficiency can be corrected by the soil application of manganese sulphate @5-10 kg/ha or foliar spray of magnesium sulphate (.25%) 2 to 3 times.
- Avoid planting on very sandy and alkaline soils.