Climate information for Asparagus Farming.
Asparagus grows well in sub-tropical and sub-temperate agro-climatic regions. It requires an average temperature of 25 to 35 degree Celsius. It requires an annual rainfall of 600 mm to 1000mm for its growth.
Spear development increases with the increase in temperature up to optimum. Temperature causes narrow spear development. Low freezing temperatures can cause discoloration of shoots.
Soil required for Asparagus Farming.
Light to medium textured, sandy loam black soil with high organic matter content and proper drainage is required. The optimum pH of the soil should range between 6.5 to 7.5.
It is recommended to apply lime in acidic soils. In case of heavy soils, cultivation on raised beds should be preferred to ensure proper drainage. Asparagus is tolerant of the salinity of the soil.
Recommended sowing dates for Asparagus Farming.
Seeds are sown in early Spring or during winter.
Kharif- Mostly the seeds are sown in the month of April and transplanting is done during the month of June-July.
Rabi- in Rabi season it is sown from October to December.
Land preparation for Asparagus Farming.
The land should be deep ploughed to a depth of 20 to 25 cm. Harrowing should be done two to three times after ploughing followed by levelling the field. Asparagus is planted on ridges and furrows. 45 cm broad ridges and 20cm wide furrows are made on the field that serves as a channel for water passage.
Sowing methods and tips for Asparagus Farming.
The seeds are sown on raised beds in the nursery at 5 cm spacing and covered with a thin layer of fine sand. Regular light watering must be done. These seeds germinate in 7 to 10 days after which they are transplanted on the ridges in the field. The register should be 45 to 600 cm wide with furrow size of 15 to 20 cm.
The spacing should be kept as 45-60cm × 60cm.
In the case of vegetative propagation, crown rhizomes are used. The crowns are planted 30 cm apart in rows and covered with 5 to 7cm of soil after planting.
Irrigation required for Asparagus Farming.
In the rainy season, irrigation is not required. During the winter season, two to three irrigations are required during the whole season in an interval of 30 days. While in the summer season 2 irrigations per month are required, one immediately after transplanting and second irrigation 7 days after seedling establishment.
Nearly time tons of well-decomposed farmyard manure is required. Recommended NPK ratio is 60:80:100 kg per hectare. The entire dose of Potassium, Phosphorus and one-third of Nitrogen is given as basal dose whereas remaining nitrogen is given in two split doses. In the case of boron deficiency apply 1.5-2.5 kilogram boron per hectare in soil.
A minimum of 50 kilograms of Nitrogen should be applied infield per hectare. For phosphorus, a minimum of 60 kilograms per hectare and a maximum of 80 kilograms per hectare should be applied in the field. Potassium can be applied a maximum of 100 kilograms per hectare to a minimum of 60 kilograms per hectare.
Seed requirement for Asparagus Farming.
6 to 7 kg of seeds per hectare are required for asparagus cultivation.
Nearly 20 thousand crowns are required for vegetative propagation.
Seed treatment for Asparagus Farming.
For better germination, pre-soak the seeds in cow urine for 24 hours or soak the seeds for 3 to 4 days at 30 to 35 degrees Celsius in water before planting. Soaking softens the seed coat and helps in early germination and emergence.
Best seed varieties for Asparagus Farming.
Selection 841- it is a good variety with high nutritious value. Spears are 20 cm long suitable for soup preparation. This variety gives an average yield of 90-110 quintal green spears per hectare.
- Perfection- the spears are large and green and lightly tipped. Average yield is 80-100 spears per hectare.
- Jersey gem- the jersey gem has tolerance to cercospora leaf spot. It is a high yielding variety.
Best practices for Asparagus Farming.
- Intercropping in asparagus with beans or green crops can be practiced.
- The field should be weed-free. Two to three weddings are required during the rainy season. Stale seedbed methods can also be practiced.
- Mulching can be practiced to preserve soil moisture and prevent weed growth.
- Use of plant growth regulators such as Gibberellic acid will promote the growth of asparagus buds, while butyric acid will support spear emergence.