Climate needed for Amla Farming.
Amla requires a temperature of 22 to 30 degree Celsius during the sowing period. The temperature requirement for growth of amla is 46 to 48 degrees Celsius. The average rainfall of 650-800mm is required for amla cultivation.
Suitable Soil for Amla Farming.
Amla requires a slightly acidic to saline soil with a pH range of 6.5-9.5 for its growth. Soil texture must be loamy having a good drainage system. Amla can also be cultivated in calcareous soils.
Recommended sowing times for Amla Farming.
Amla is mostly sown in the Rabi season from July to September. In some areas, Amla is sown from November to December.
Land preparation for Amla Farming.
The seedbed required for amla cultivation should be of fine tilth. The field must be ploughed twice with disc plough or moldboard plough and then harrowing should be done. The seedlings are planted in pits of nearly 1m×1m×1m dimensions. Each bit must be supplied with 15 kilograms of well-decomposed manure and 500-gram phosphorus before planting seedlings.
Sowing methods and tips for Amla Farming.
In Amla farming, one-year-old seedlings are budded with buds collected from best yielding varieties and these seedlings are then transplanted at a distance of 4.5m × 4.5m in pits of nearly one-meter square depth. These plants should be left for 15 to 20 days to expose them to sunlight. Different varieties in the ratio of at least 2:2:1 should be planted to ensure maximum yield as Amla shows self-incompatibility.
Irrigation methods for Amla Farming.
Plants do not require supplemental irrigation during the monsoon rains. During the winter season, nearly 20 liters of water per day should be given to each plant. Drip irrigation should be practiced to avoid water wastage. In summer, irrigate the plants at every 15 days interval.
Fertilizer Requirements for Amla Farming.
The NPK dose of Amla plant is 100:50:100 gram per plant during the 1st year along with 15 kilograms of well-decomposed farmyard manure (FYM). As the years succeed the fertilizer dose is doubled for every year up to 10 years. In terms of application, a full dose of phosphorus and half dose of potassium and nitrogen are given as a basal dose. Whereas the remaining half dose is given later after 6 months. Boron and zinc sulphate can also be sprayed with foliar application @ 100 to 500 gram per tree depending upon the requirement of the crop.
Seeds Requirements for Amla Farming.
500 gram per hectare of seed is required.
Seed Treatment for Amla Farming.
Seed treatment before sowing should be done for better germination and to protect the crops from soil-borne disease as well as pests. The seeds are covered with hard coating and take a long time to germinate. Therefore the seeds must be treated with concentrated H2SO4 for 3 minutes and then washed with water to dissolve the outer hard layer. These seeds are then soaked into 500ppm of gibberellic acid for 24 hours and then sown in the nursery for proper germination.
Best seed Varieties of Amla Farming.
- Kanchan(NA-5) - It can be sown from mid-November to mid-December. The fruits weigh approximately 30 gram each with medium ascorbic acid content. The average yield is 120 kilogram per tree.
- BSR-1 (Bhavani Sagar)- the trees are spreading in nature and of medium height. These varieties can be planted at a spacing of 6m × 6m. Each fruit weighs nearly 27 gram with TSS of 18°brix.
- Chakiya- this variety bears heavy fruiting in alternate years and is a late-maturing crop. Fruits are generally smaller than other varieties. The fruits are fibrous with 2% fiber. It is used for making pickles.
Best cultivation practices for Amla Farming.
- Training and pruning- It involves the removal of dead, diseased and weak branches of the Amla tree. The plants are pruned at about 0.75m above from the ground level This ensures proper fruit-bearing.
- Mulching- Paddy straw or other substances can be used to create mulch during summer.
- Intercultivation- Intercultivation with green gram, black gram, cowpea can be done in Amla orchard to obtain more profit.